Channels and Rills'Hard-edged' conveyance channels to move water between components in a SuDS 'train'.ᅠ Typically narrower than swales, but may also include vegetated aspects. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Coarse woody debrisCoarse woody debris is a key stream habitat feature used by fish and other organisms. Coarse woody debris can also help to lower flow velocity in streams. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Continuous Cover forestryContinuous cover forestry (CCF) is a broad term encompassing a wide variety of forest management practices. One key feature of is that biomass removal is based either on small clearcuts or selective harvesting. Smaller clearcuts may create less hydrological disturbance but some of the filtration benefits associated with forest soils may be lost as a result of the greater driving and road maintenance needed for continuous harvesting. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Controlled Traffic FarmingControlled traffic farming is a system which confines all machinery loads to the least possible area of permanent traffic lanes. Current farming systems allow machines to run at random over the land, compacting around 75% of the area within one season and at least the whole area by the second season. Soils donメt recover quickly, taking as much as a few years. A proper CTF system on the other hand can reduce tracking to just 15% and this is always in the same place. CTF is a tool; it does not include a prescription for tillage although most growers adopting CTF use little or none because soil structure does not need to be repaired. The permanent traffic lanes are normally parallel to each other and this is the most efficient way of achieving CTF, but the definition does not preclude tracking at an angle. The permanent traffic lanes may be cropped or non-cropped depending on a wide range of variables and local constraints. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Cost-Benefit AnalysisA framework of analysis based on economic rationality (within a number of constraints one will always try to make that decision that increases her individual welfare) and founded on welfare economics. CBA compares costs and benefits of different alternatives and provides rational criteria for decision-making.ᅠ CBA is a critical input for some decisions but does not replace decisions themselves (i.e. its result is not a binding one). CBA quantifies in monetary terms and compares the pros and cons of any initiative, including items for which the market does not provide a satisfactory measure of economic value. CBA yields profitability indicators, financial, economic or social, on the basis of information throughout the lifespan of the project. It is to be used when the objectives of different NWRM or Programmes of Measures are not the same, that is to say, when what is at stake is not just a set of alternative measures themselves but also different collective aims. ᅠ
Cost-effectiveness AnalysisAnalytical tool or appraisal technique that assesses the costs of alternative ways of producing the same output or alike. It ranks alternative measures on the basis of their costs and effectiveness, where the most cost-effective measure gets the highest ranking. Since CEA is suggested for comparative analyses, costs to be collected should include those that are not site-specific.
Crop rotationCrop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar/different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. It gives various benefits to the soil. A traditional element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. Crop rotation also mitigates the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped, and can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Can be used in combination with other measures where these are compatible with crop choice. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission