Filter StripsGently sloping vegetated strips of land that provide opportunities for slow conveyance and infiltration. Designed to accept runoff as overland flow from upstream and to slow the progress of this runoff. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Financial costThe (monetary) value of resources deployed for the implementation of any NWRM, which includes upfront capital expenditures, either from new investments or the replacement of assets in past investments; depreciation allowances (annualised cost or replacing the accounting value of existing assets in the future); operating expenditures (those incurred to keep the NWRM running in an efficient manner); maintenance expenditures (for preserving existing or new assets in good functioning order throughout their useful life); and decommissioning costs (those incurred at the end of the lifecycle of the NWRM).
FloodplainA floodplain isᅠan area of land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls which provides space for the retention of flood and rainwater.ᅠ It experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. It includes the floodway, which consists of the stream channel and adjacent areas that actively carry flood flows downstream, and the flood fringe, which are areas inundated by the flood, but which do not experience a strong current. Floodplain soils are generally very fertile and they have often been dried-out to be used as agricultural land. Floodplains have also been separated from the river by dikes, berms or other structures designed to control the flow of the river. Nowadays, the objective is to restore them, their retention capacity and ecosystem functions by reconnecting them to the river. Example of action that can be done on floodplains: hedges to break flood streams, e.g. hedges perpendicular to the river flow that are planted in the restored floodplain to slow down floods. In other words, a floodplain is an area near a river or a stream which floods when the water level reaches flood stage. - Based on Stella definition and Wikipedia, adapted by NWRM project experts
Forest HarvestingForest harvesting can cause severe disruptions to the hydrologic cycle. Clearcut areas are often subject to localized flooding due to reductions in evapotranspiration caused by removal of trees. Roads and other infrastructure needed to support forest harvesting can also be significant sources of sediment to surface waters. However, negative effects can be minimized when forest harvesting is performed in a water-sensitive manner and measures are taken to maintain the natural hydrological functioning of the landscape.
Forests as large-scale water pumpsMuch of the evapotranspiration from forests falls elsewhere as rain, Ellison et al. (2012), amongst others, have shown that this large scale water pump can be a significant component of the annual precipitation in many continental areas. That is to say, many continental areas would receive a lot less rain if it were not for the mositure returned to the atmosphere by actively growing forests.