LakeAn enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded. (Source: WHIT)
Lake restorationLakes are by definition water retention facilities; they store water (for flood control) and provide water for many purposes such as water supply, irrigation, fisheries, tourism, etc.ᅠ In addition, they serve as sinks for carbon storage and provide important habitats for numerous species of plants and animals, including waders.ᅠ In the past, lakes have sometimes been drained to free the land for agriculture purposes, or have simply not been maintained and have silted up.ᅠ Restoring lakes is re-introducing them where they have been in former times or revitalising them. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Land use conversionIt is widely believed that forest soils can function as pollution filters. Afforestation is practiced in rural areas around many large cities as a means of improving the quality of the drinking water supply aquifer by filtering out pollutants. Afforestation may also reduce peak flows and help to maintain base flows. Such afforestation should reduce sediment loadings and may have other benefits including improved biodiversity and recreational value. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
LeachingThe process by which nutrients and other chemicals are washed out of the soil by percolating water. Nitrate fertilisers, for example, are washed out of the soil because of their high solubility. They eventually find their way into watercourses or groundwater causing pollution.
Levelling of dams/ longitudinal barriersLevelling longitudinal barriers allows re-establishing fluvial dynamics and ecological continuity. The aim is to restore the slope and longitudinal profile of the river, to restore natural water flows, to allow for the solid transport (sediment) to take place, toᅠ diversify flows (depth, substrate, speed), diversify habitats and related flora and fauna. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
LifespanLength of time for which the NWRM may fully operate.
Low Impact DevelopmentLID is a toolbox of site-scale practices that the site designer and developer can utilize to:manage urban rainfall where it occurs for minimized stormwater concentration and runoffpotentially lower short-term and long-term development costsimprove water qualityenhance natural habitat and flood controlimprove green space aesthetics and potentially increase property valuesincrease community quality of life and livabilityThere are many practices that are used to support these benefits, including bioretention systems, rain gardens, vegetated rooftops, bioswales, rain barrels, and permeable pavements to name a few. By implementing LID principles and practices, water can be managed in a way that reduces the impact of built areas on the environment while providing numerous additional benefits. (source: LID symposium).This concept is very similar to NWRM in the United States context. It is very connected to Green Infrastructure. See also the link to US EPA green infrastructure website.