Peak flow control structuresEngineered ponds in peatlands that have been ditched to enhance forest production have the potential to retain water in the landscape and trap sediment without adversely affecting tree growth. Such measures have the potential to limit hydrograph peaks and potentially reduce flooding associated with snowmelt. - Elaborated by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Permeable paving and other permeable surfacesPervious surfaces (either porous or permeable) like permeable paving designed to allow rainwater to infiltrate through the surface and into underlying layers (soils and aquifers), or broader use of permeable areas to promote greater infiltration. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
PhosphorusPhosphates from agriculture are an important contributor to phosphorus loading on water bodies. Phosphorus is considered to be a limiting factor in the process of eutrophication that can generally be regarded as the enrichment of surface waters by nutrients which causes overgrowth of algae and weeds. The result is deoxygenation of waters that can kill fish and other aquatic life. Algae growth can also be a hazard to human health.
Preferential flow Local concentrations of flow in the soil that may be due to the effects of macropores, local variations in hydraulic properties or fingering of a wetting front moving into the soil profile. May lead to rapid and deep infiltration of water bypassing much of the soil matrix (see also Macropores)