Rain GardensSmall-scale depressions used for storage and infiltration, typically at a property-level and close to buildings (e.g. to infiltrate roof drainage at a property level). - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Rainwater HarvestingCollecting and storing rainwater for subsequent use ヨ for example, using water butts or larger storage tanks. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
ReconnectionFrom the perspective of natural water retention measures (NWRM), reconnection is the process of improving hydrological connection in the landscape, both through linking water bodies and through improving the connectivity between rivers and their adjacent floodplains. Reconnection can make use of historical and currently water channels to restore previously existing hydrological connectivity and functioning.
Reduced/Conservation tillageConservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,100ᅠkg/ha of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period. This slows water movement, which reduces the amount of soil erosion. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Reduced stocking densityReduced stocking density will limit soil compaction, thereby facilitating more rapid infiltration during precipitation events and potentially reducing peak flows and sediment runoff. - Elaborated by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Re-meanderingIn the past, rivers have been straightened by cutting off meanders (historically, many rivers in northern and western Europe have been straightened and channelized to facilitate log floating and/or speed up the drainage of water and control/limit the river bed movements).ᅠ Re-meandering is bringing a river back closer to its naturally meandering state by creating a new meandering course and by reconnecting cut-off meanders.ᅠ Re-meandering slows down the flow of a river.ᅠ The new form of the river channel creates new flow conditions and very often also has an impact on sedimentation.ᅠ The newly created or reconnected meanders also provide habitats for a wide range of aquatic and land species of plants and animals. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
RenaturationA process of returning natural ecosystems or habitats to their original structure and species composition. Renaturation requires a detailed knowledge of the original species, ecosystem functions and interacting processes involved. (Source: GEMET, adapted from DUNSTE)
Reservoir catchmentAfforestation of reservoir catchments can have multiple benefits. It can reduce sediment inputs from the catchment, lengthening the life of the reservoir, and may also have beneficial effects on water quality in some cases when peatlands are afforested. Afforestation can reduce peak flows and help to maintain base flows. The benefits of afforestation must be balanced against the potential for increased evapotranspiration from a rapidly growing forest. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Resource costThe cost linked the economic or relative scarcity of water once it is used.
RestorationRestoration is a management action or set of actions with the aim of restoring natural hydrologic functioning ᅠin the landscape. Restoration of natural functioning can contribute to an environmental balance in water management. NWRM implementation can either be an enhancement/improvement of the natural hydrologic functioning ᅠin the landscape or a restoration action.
Retention PondsPonds or pools with additional storage capacity to attenuate surface runoff during rainfall events.ᅠ Retention time of runoff can provide the capacity to remove pollutants through sedimentation and opportunity for biological uptake of nutrients. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Revitalisation of flowing watersIn the past, rivers flows have been modified through channelisation, embankments or modification of river beds. Those modifications were aiming at flood prevention or supporting changes of agricultural practices for example. This has led to uniformed flows in the rivers and often having effect on the water time transfers. Current practices for revitalisation of flowing waters are trying to create the conditions for diversifying the water flows, inducing more diversity in habitats for fauna but also increasing the water time transfers in order to prevent flash floods in the downstream areas for example. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Riparian buffersPlanting and maintaining tree cover in near-stream areas can have multiple benefits including erosion and nutrient leaching control. They will also slow the stream velocity during high flow flood events and may have beneficial effects on stream temperature. Maintaining treed forest buffers during clearcutting can help minimizing the adverse effects of forestry on water quality and may have additional biodiversity benefits. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Riparian zone1) Terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate are products of the combined pressure and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water... and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics. 2) Zone situated on the bank of a water course such as a river or stream. (Source: DUNSTE / GILP96)
RiverbedThe channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river. (Source: BJGEO)
Riverbed (alluvial mattress)The reconstitution of the alluvial mattress consists in leveling-up the river bed and/or reactivating the bank erosion in order to stop the incision of the river bed. It can allow better connection with side arms, level-up the water level at low flow periods, diversifying flows (depth, substrate, speed), diversify habitats and increase retention times. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission