Sediment capture pondsSediment capture ponds are widely used to "slow down" water being drained from boreal forests. The main function of the sediment capture ponds is to remove prevent pollution of receiving waters downstream of a forest by removing suspended sediment and associated pollutants. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
SoakawaysExcavations, typically filled with gravel, designed to store water and allow it to infiltrate into underlying soils or aquifers.ᅠ Soakaways would typically receive point-source inflow (e.g. from roof drainage).ᅠᅠ - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
Soil ConservationThe management of land to minimise soil erosion to maintain soil and water resources, and provide sustainable benefits in the long term.
Strip croppingStrip cropping is a method of farming used when a slope is too steep or too long, or otherwise, when one does not have an alternative method of preventing soil erosion. It alternates strips of closely sown crops such as hay, wheat, or other small grains with strips of row crops, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, or sugar beets. Strip cropping helps to stop soil erosion by creating natural dams for water, helping to preserve the strength of the soil. Certain layers of plants will absorb minerals and water from the soil more effectively than others. When water reaches the weaker soil that lacks the minerals needed to make it stronger, it normally washes it away. When strips of soil are strong enough to slow down water from moving through them, the weaker soil can't wash away like it normally would. Because of this, farmland stays fertile much longer. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
SubsoilingOn heavy or poorly structured soils it is occasionally necessary to loosen the soil to a greater depth than that reached by normal cultivations, in order to improve drainage and root penetration. Subsoiling machines (subsoilers) for this purpose can operate at depths from 300-600 mm and at spacing as close as 1 metre. Subsoiling may be used to counteract effects of soil smearing and compaction resulting from handling of soils in wet conditions.
Sunk costThose expenditures that, once committed, cannot be (easily) recovered. These costs arise because some activities require specialized assets that cannot be readily diverted to other uses.
Supplementary measure"Supplementary" measures are those measures designed and implemented in addition to the basic measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives established pursuant to Article 4 of the WFD. Part B of Annex VI contains a non-exclusive list of such measures. Member States may also adopt further supplementary measures in order to provide for additional protection or improvement of the waters covered by this Directive, including in implementation of the relevant international agreements referred to in Article 1.
Surface RunoffSurface runoff can be described as water flowing over soil, vegetation or other ground cover instead of infiltrating to the underlying soil. Surface runoff may be caused by imperviousness of the underlying material, or because the underlying material is already being saturated, i.e. at capacity. The quantity of water during storm events (and/or runoff from adjacent impervious surfaces) may exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil and receiving waters resulting in increased flood risk. The speed at which liquid soaks into the soil is important in working out the risk of runoff.ᅠ Run-off can contribute to on-site and off-site problems via leaching and erosion. This includes: - losses of pesticides, fertilisers or soil, - pollution of receiving water if the run-off water is contaminated with pesticides, fertilisers or sediment, - other biophysical impacts on the aquatic environment like excessive sedimentation and clogging, or high concentrations of suspended solid which in turn cause cloudiness of the water affecting the quantity of sunlight that infiltrates the water.
Suspended SedimentThe solid particles, suspended within the water column, which the water is carrying. Includes soil particles and organic material derived from living thing. Can be measured by filtering the water and accurately weighing the dried residue to give a figure in milligrams per litre.
Sustainable Drainage Systems"Approaches to manage surface water that take account of water quantity (flooding), water quality (pollution)ᅠand amenity issues are collectively referred to as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS). SuDS mimic nature and typically manage rainfall close to where it falls. SuDS can be designed to slow water down (attenuate) before it entersᅠstreams, rivers and other watercourses, they provide areas to store water in natural contours and can be used to allow water to soak (infiltrate) into the ground or evaporated from surface water and lost or transpired from vegetation (known as evapotranspiration)." (Source: susdrain)
Sustainable Urban Drainage SystemsSustainable Urban Drainage Systems (or SUDS) are a sequence of water management practices, green infrastructures and measures designed to drain surface water in a manner that mimics the natural hydrologic cycle and will provide a more sustainable approach to rainwater management than what has been the conventional grey infrastructure practice of routing run-off through a pipe to a receiving watercourse.
SwalesShallow, broad and vegetated channels designed to store and/or convey runoff. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission