Germasogeia river, Limassol
Germasogeia river (also known as Amathos river) crosses the premises of Germasogeia municipality, close to the city of Limassol on the south end of Cyprus. The aim of the measure implementation is to enable natural purification of water and recharge of Germasogeia aquifer, processes that were disrupted by the construction of an upstream dam. This is succeeded by gradually releasing water from the upstream dam and maintaining the high transmissivity of the riverbed.
Ayis Iacovides, I.A.CO
Evaluation of the operation of Yermasoyia surface and groundwater reservoirs using environmental isotopes
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study
warm temperate dry
Mean rainfall unit
Mean evaportranspiration unit
Mean runoff unit
450 - 600 mm
Average runoff coefficient
Case Study Info
Light or indepth?
Average slope range
Bare river bed with disperds reedbeds
Monitoring impacts effects
Performance impact estimation method
Performance impact estimation information
Monitoring included: surface water released, flow in stream monitored by four weirs 700 m apart, groundwater pumping, water-table fluctuation through 43 observation wells, samples for chemical analysis to monitor sea intrusion and a groundwater model.
Design & implementations
< 1 year
Design capacity description
15000 - 25000m3/d of water released, on average
Max water retention capacity
Max water retention capacity unit
Runoff treatment capacity
Runoff treatment capacity unit
A streambed aquifer of high transmissivity and large storage coefficient is required. High infiltration capacity is also needed of the riverbed to enable recharge to occur. Low or free from sediment surface water will maintain infiltration rates.
Availability of surface water (reservoir), need for increased recharge due to use of aquifer, suitable hydrogeologic conditions of streambed aquifer such as high infiltration capacity and permaeability coupled with high storage coefficient.
Inflow volume unit
Design contractual arrangement
Design consultation activity
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Design land use change
|Land use change type|
Beaches, dunes, sands
Lessons, risks, implications...
Germasogeia is a typical river alluvial aquifer in Cyprus. Natural recharge depends on releases from an upstream reservoir or from water imported from elsewhere (Kouris Dam). The application†™s main lessons are: a) the aquifer is used as a natural water treatment plant of fresh surface water, b) the water demand is covered with groundwater of acceptable quality, c) the aquifer is protected from sea intrusion and, d) groundwater losses to the sea are minimized due to regulation of pumping and recharge.
|Success factor type||Success factor role||Comments|
Existing staff and consultant knowledge
Attitude of relevant stakeholders
|Barrier type||Barrier role||Comments|
Limited staff and consultant knowledge
Demanding practice requiring good hydrogeologic knowledge of system to fine tune releases.
Attitude of decision makers
|Driver type||Driver role||Comments|
Downstream user rights affected by construction of Germasogeia dam together with increasing water demand
Organisation committed to it
|Financing share type||Share||Comments|
Policy, general governance and design targets
Natural recharge disrupted by upstream reservoir is reconstituted by releases and artificial recharge to maintain pumping of groundwater for domestic water supply to communities in the area. Conjunctive use of water sources increases available supply.
Part of wider plan
Increase Water Storage
Oher Societal Benefits
|Pressure directive||Relevant pressure|
|Policy area type||Policy area focus||Name||Comments|
|Impact directive||Relevant impact|
Policy wider plan
|Wider plan type||Wider plan focus||Name||Comments|
Drinking water supply
Policy requirement directive
Direct benefits information
The aquifer is used as a natural water treatment plant. By the regulation of the aquifer a) the water demand with groundwater of acceptable quality is met, b) sea intrusion is controlled and groundwater losses to the sea are minimized.
Ancillary benefits information
Defertment of additional works to meet growing water supply demand (desalination, treatment works, drilling for wells etc.) Reduced cost of water supply to consumer.
Costs capital information
Estimated costs for drilling of 5 observation boreholes (2500€each) equipped with water level recorders (1000€ each) and construction of 4 weirs at every 700 m along the riverbed (3000€each) with recorders (1500€each). Earthworks within riverbed (2500€).
Costs operational information
Estimated expenses 6000€/year Dam Attendant for releases and Technician for operating weirs and carrying out monitoring. Assumed 20% of their time per year. No cost of fresh water is assumed.
Costs maintenance information
2500€/year for earthworks within riverbed. 1000€/year to maintain recorders, wells and water meters.
Costs total information
No costs for the upstream reservoir or for the pumping wells are considered. Estimated costs are of the order of 60000€ for observation wells, weirs, earthworks, and initial studies by hydrologists and engineers.
Economic costs additional
Ecosystem improved biodiversity
Information on Ecosystem improved biodiversity
Riparian vegetation as habitat has improved.
Ecosystem provisioning services
Information on Ecosystem provisioning services
By 1988 the overall extraction for domestic water supply 65% of which was for meeting part of the needs of Limassol town, and the total needs of 4 nearby communities increased by 90% compared to that prior of the measure in 1982.
Ecosystem impact climate regulation
No specific impact
Information on Ecosystem impact climate regulation
It can be said that some impact of the measure may have to do with reduction of energy use and GHGs (desalination, treatment etc.)
Retained water unit
Information on retained water
The number given refers to monthly average infiltrated water (1982-87) between weirs 700m apart (or 1400 m length) and a riverbed of 50 m width.
Increased water storage
Increased water storage unit
Information on increased water storage
The number refers to average annual quantity pumped (1982-88) from the aquifer as a result of the artificial recharge plus losses from the upstream reservoir.
Runoff reduction unit
Information on runoff reduction
The number refers to the ratio of extraction of 1988 to that of 1982
Ecosystem erosion control
Information on Ecosystem erosion control
Erosion control is impacted by the dam reservoir existing upstream the NWRM.
Water quality overall improvements
Positive impact-WQ improvement
Information on Water quality overall improvements
Chloride in time for selected wells in the delta area is used as index to the extent of sea intrusion. This fluctuates in response to the recharge releases and to prolonged periods of extraction without recharge. No deterioration trend is observed.
Soil quality overall soil improvements
Neutral impact-no change in SQ status
Information on Soil quality overall soil improvements
Water is released in the active normally dry riverbed. The fresh water is free of sediments being water stored in reservoir, thus no detrimental effect is noticed on infiltration rate.
Studies and good knowledge of aquifer response. Models and trial releases are needed