# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Working on NWRM requires understanding of a broad range of key concepts. This page gathers definitions for a set of key concepts used when addressing NWRM. It sets a shared ontology, with interlinkages between concepts. Semantic annotations have been developed and the associated ontology represented thanks to a relation graph.

Semantic Annotation helps to bridge the ambiguity of the natural language when expressing notions and their computational representation in a formal language. By telling a computer how data items are related and how these relations can be evaluated automatically, it becomes possible to process complex filter and search operations. (source:

Afforestation is the process of planting trees, either to replace those removed during forest harvesting or as a means of land use conversion. Afforestation is part of several natural water retention measures as it can contribute to a more natural... more
Agronomic practices which have the primary purpose of improvements to agriculture can, in some cases, contribute to the functioning of natural water retention measures. As such, they integrate sustainable and natural water management into current... more
Additional or subsidiary, positive impact (in terms of social welfare). As in the case of avoided costs or damages, an ancillary benefit is an indirect one. NWRM come along with other important impacts in terms of biodiversity, amenity, etc. that... more
Appropriately designed roads and stream crossings can minimize the likelihood of erosion and sediment production that can be associated with forestry activities including final harvest. Poorly designed or built roads and stream crossings can cause... more
AGR stores large quantities of water in underground aquifers to increase the quantity of groundwater in times of shortage.ᅠ It results in a lowering of run-off from surrounding land, and in an enhanced natural condition of aquifers and water... more
Equivalent to an indirect benefit; financial outlays, negative impacts or welfare losses on anyone which are eluded by choosing one specific course of action among different alternatives. Some natural water retention measures (NWRM) may protect... more
The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river. (Source: CED)
Basic measures are the minimum requirements to be complied with and shall consist of: (a) those measures required to implement Community legislation for the protection of water, including measures required under the legislation specified in Article... more
Basins and ponds store surface run-off.ᅠ Detention basins are free from water in dry weather flow conditions but ponds (e.g., retention ponds, flood storage reservoirs, shallow impoundments) contain water in dry weather, and are designed to hold... more
The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution. The biophysical environment can vary in scale... more
A biophysical parameter is a measurable characteristic that can help in defining a particular system. It can cover individual substances, groups of substances or be defined by its measurement method like turbidity or the mesurement of oxygen... more
Buffer strips are areas of natural vegetation cover (grass, bushes or trees) at the margin of fields, arable land, transport infrastructures and water courses. They can have several different configurations of vegetation found on them varying from... more
'Hard-edged' conveyance channels to move water between components in a SuDS 'train'.ᅠ Typically narrower than swales, but may also include vegetated aspects. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the... more
Coarse woody debris is a key stream habitat feature used by fish and other organisms. Coarse woody debris can also help to lower flow velocity in streams. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European... more
Continuous cover forestry (CCF) is a broad term encompassing a wide variety of forest management practices. One key feature of is that biomass removal is based either on small clearcuts or selective harvesting. Smaller clearcuts may create less... more
Controlled traffic farming is a system which confines all machinery loads to the least possible area of permanent traffic lanes. Current farming systems allow machines to run at random over the land, compacting around 75% of the area within one... more
A framework of analysis based on economic rationality (within a number of constraints one will always try to make that decision that increases her individual welfare) and founded on welfare economics. CBA compares costs and benefits of different... more
Analytical tool or appraisal technique that assesses the costs of alternative ways of producing the same output or alike. It ranks alternative measures on the basis of their costs and effectiveness, where the most cost-effective measure gets the... more
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar/different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. It gives various benefits to the soil. A traditional element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through... more
Vegetated depressions designed to store runoff on the surface and allow it to gradually infiltrate into soil. Infiltration basins are dry, except in periods of heavy rainfall, and may serve to other functions (e.g. recreation). They provide flow... more
Downspout disconnection involves theᅠrerouting of rooftop drainage pipes from the storm sewer systemᅠtoᅠrain barrels,ᅠcisterns,ᅠor permeable areas instead of the storm sewer.ᅠThis reduces the loading of rainwater on the storm sewer systemᅠ, and can... more
Early sowing refers to sowing up to six weeks before the normal sowing season.ᅠ This allows for an earlier and quicker development of crops and of a root network that leads to soil protection.ᅠ The period in which the soil lies bare is shorter and,... more
Sacrifice associated to the use of available resources to one means instead of another (so that any economic cost is indeed an opportunity cost) or of following one course of action instead of the best available alternative. As applied to NWRM, it... more
The suppression of lateral constraints consists in removing some bank protection in order to enhance lateral connection of the river, diversifying flows (depth, substrate, speed), diversify habitats but also capping floods in the mainstream. -... more
Negative impacts connected with the actual or potential degradation of natural assets or environmental quality due to economic activities.