Case studies

Description case studies

Within the present pilot project, a large number of NWRM case studies has been identified, and information collected using a common template. Among them, at least one - particular interesting - case study has been selected for each country, and additional descriptive information has been collected. The latter are designated as “in-depth” case studies, and more detailed information on them is available for download. The others are designated as "light" case studies.

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In the 50's and 60’s, the alluvial plain of the Alzette river was deeply modified in order to develop intensive agriculture. As a result, the water retention was reduced and ecological value declined. The project aimed at restoring the ecological state of the Alzette in Drumontshaff (Luxembourg). The two mains tasks of the project were to restore the natural functioning of the Alzette river (frequent overflowing and flooding of aside land, wetland habitats restoration) and to develop an extensive management of aside meadows (late mowing, no fertilizer or biocidal product, etc.). The first step was to determine the floodplain through past and current reference values. After the feasibility study, a reallocation scheme was drown. An agronomic feasibility study was made to determine socio-economic solutions. The river and hydraulic annexes were restored (lateral enlargement or displacement of the river bed into natural thalweg). Finally, the restoration of the complete flood plain was possible.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering Meadows and pastures
Sector: Hydro Morphology Agriculture
The Alzette river (Luxembourg) restoration project aimed at erasing the effect of the river chanelling, which caused the river uniformisation and an ecological impoverishment. The project consisted in a remeandering, increase of the base level of the river, widening of the riverbed, reconnection of the river to existing ponds and creation of a new pond.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Aquifer recharge with highly polished treated effluents. With a high population density and almost inexistent surface waters, Malta is in a situation of over abstraction of its groundwater resources and where its total water demand exceeds the sustainable yield of the naturally renewable freshwater resources. Demand comes from the domestic and agricultural sectors alike (the domestic use can even exceed the agricultural use with the arrival of tourists during touristic seasons). From a qualitative point of view, freshwater resources are also under threat resulting from nitrates and salt water intrusions.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Restoration of natural infiltration to groundwater
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Babina polder (2.100 ha), in Romania, was reconnected to the Danube in 1994 and recovery has been monitored by the Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development. Within a few years a redevelopment of the site-specific biodiversity occurred and ecosystem services like nutrient retention and fish recruitment became obvious. Additionally, the reconnected polder enable reed harvesting, grazing, fishing and ecotourism.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Wetland restoration and management Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Baixo Vouga Lagunar (BVL) bocage landscape (Portugal) This is a traditional practice in the Baixo Vouga Lagunar Area (Aveiro District, Vouga River Estuary, Portugal), since 19th century in order to protect BVL from the tidal floods. Baixo Vouga Lagunar represents a man-shaped landscape working in a dependent relationship between agricultural activities, wildlife and water regulation. BVL includes three main landscape units: bocage (smallholdings bounded by living-hedges and water ditches supplying water for crop and livestock production and also assure the drainage when there is water in excess in the fields), wetlands and open-fields.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Buffer strips and hedges Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Agriculture Hydro Morphology
The BIOMURA project was particularly focused on conservation of four habitat types, listed in Annex I of the Habitats Directive. It consists in the connection of the main channel of the Mura River in the east of Slovenia with side channels, provision of conditions for the adequate water level at the intake of water into side branches (intake at average and low flows), local widening of the channel and sustainable maintenance of alluvial forests and side channels. These measures were targeted to improve and protect riparian habitats and endangered species. Funded by LIFE program, Ministry of Environment and Spatial planning of Slovenia, Institute for water of Republic of Slovenia and partners.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features Natural bank stabilisation
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The purpose of this project was the establishment of appropriate conditions for protection and conservation of animal and plant species and their habitats on Lake Cerknica, in Slovenia. It simultaneously sought to promote an even development of local agriculture, forestry, fishing, tourism, recreation and education in accordance with natural values. The project was funded by LIFE program and Notranjska Regional Park was responsible of the project coordinated with the Biotechnical Faculty, the Municipality and Inzeniring za vode d.o.o.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering Stream bed re-naturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The aim was the preservation, restoration and sustainable management in Small Wetland of Brăila, the wet area compacted on the lower course of the Danube, between Silistra and Brăila. The project has been carried out during the period from October 2006 to April 2011 spending a total of 978.419 €.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF), implemented the first constructed wetland in Vidrare, Pravetz, Bulgaria, for on-site treatment of domestic waste water of a children's home combined with capacity building for professionals.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Retention Ponds Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Urban Hydro Morphology
Cover Crops and No-Tillage in an Olive Grove (Andalusia, Spain). "La Conchuela" is commercial olive orchard (Cordoba, Andalusia, Spain) in which alternative soil management practices (no-tillage and green cover) to reduce soil erosion and runoff have been studied during 7 years. This case study shows how the use of a cover crop can be a simple, feasible soil and water conservation practice in olive groves on rolling lands in the region.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: No till agriculture Green cover
Sector: Agriculture
The LIVEDRAVA project, funded by LIFE programe, involved the transformation of 61 ha of former wastewater basins into a semi-natural wetland within others. It was carried out in the Drava River, in the east of Slovenia.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Elimination of riverbank protection
Sector: Hydro Morphology
There are three measures applied in the national park area primarily for nature rehabilitation, but all measures have water retention aspects. (1) Creating ponds in the forest where run off from forestry roads are collected. The main goal is to create safe breeding ground for reptiles instead of temporary sumps on the roads. (2) Re-vegetating shelterbelts (groves, wetlands) in agricultural land where 50 years ago these landscape elements were destroyed for agro efficiency reasons. (3) Building closures in the drainage channels to enable the flooding of the alder (Alnus) forest and wet meadow to improve their natural quality an important site in the ecological corridor along the stream Csörnöc.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Buffer strips and hedges
Sector: Hydro Morphology Agriculture
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Rainwater Harvesting
Sector: Urban
The main actions of the project, which formed part of a larger programme aimed at reducing the levels of pollution, was directed at restoring habitats important for the survival of bird species. Such restoration was done by improving the lagoon's water circulation, through the removal of sediments, the creation of a new marsh, flooding an area previously used for agriculture and the installation of equipment to control and regulate the inflow and outflow of water.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Urban constructions carried out by JVProjektvh which include the removal or sinking of existing curbs, lowering or adjustment of the surface, transfer of storm water from the area of street inlets to decentralized devices, taking apart gutters and street inlets within green areas.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Filter Strips
Sector: Urban
In the framework of the large-scale nature conservation project "Lenzener Elbtalaue", a dyke along the river Elbe (in Germany) has been relocated. This created a new retention area with a diverse floodplain, including alluvial forests, half-open pasture landscapes and other typical habitats of lowland floodplains. With 420 ha it is the biggest application of this type of measure in Germany so far. The project successfully combines flood protection and nature conservation objectives. Since the cutting of the old dyke in 2009, the measure could proof its effectiveness during several high water events.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Forest riparian buffers Meadows and pastures Channels and rills
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest Agriculture Urban
Kretinga is located 12 km east of the popular Baltic Sea resort town of Palanga, and about 25 km north of Lithuania's 3rd largest city and principal seaport, Klaipėda. The Stormwater Special Plan developed introduces a new approach towards more sustainable stormwater solution from an environmental perspective. This type of ecologically adapted stormwater investments have been implemented in Lithuania for the first time. If they function as well as predicted and can be disseminated through appropriate channels, there should be good possibilities to introduce similar investments in other Lithuanian towns.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Retention Ponds
Sector: Urban
Green Borders - WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) started in January 2009, along the Danube river in Romania and Bulgaria, the LIFE Nature project "Transboundary conservation of the Phalacrocorax pygmaeus and Aythya nyroca in Romanian and Bulgarian key sites" to ensure living conditions for the two species by: nesting and feeding areas, reconstruction; implementing the best practices for fisheries management, developing alternatives for minimizing the damage delt by pygmy cormorants in fisheries, stoping the species killing generated by accidental or deliberated hunting, informing the local communities on the importance of the two species and attracting funds for those alternative activities that can support the special conservation measure necessary to the species.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project's objective was to improve the conservation status of aquatic bird species in Lower Prut Floodplain Natural Park, Galati County, Romania, through a series of strategic interventions involving scientific inventory, monitoring activities, sites restoration, raising awareness activities, implementation of the park management plan and designating four Special Protected Area - Romanian Natura 2000 sites. Partners were the University of Bucharest, Romanian ornithological society and Romsilva-Galati Forestry.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project's objective was to improve the conservation status of aquatic bird species in Lower Prut Floodplain Natural Park, Galati County, Romania, through a series of strategic interventions involving scientific inventory, monitoring activities, sites restoration, raising awareness activities, implementation of the park management plan and designating four Special Protected Area - Romanian Natura 2000 sites. Partners were the University of Bucharest, Romanian ornithological society and Romsilva-Galati Forestry.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project's objective was to improve the conservation status of aquatic bird species in Lower Prut Floodplain Natural Park, Galati County, Romania, through a series of strategic interventions involving scientific inventory, monitoring activities, sites restoration, raising awareness activities, implementation of the park management plan and designating four Special Protected Area - Romanian Natura 2000 sites. Partners were the University of Bucharest, Romanian ornithological society and Romsilva-Galati Forestry.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Removing barriers to fish migration, enhancing and restoring habitats, improving the water management infrastructure, and putting in place a water monitoring system. Project funded by LIFE+ and carried out by Purgator Engineering Ltd. in responsibility of Ljubljana University.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Exmoor Mires project is part of a wider Upstream Thinking programme initiated by the local water company South West Water (SWW) to use land management to tackle problems of water quality and quantity across South-west England. The benefit to SWW is in potentially reducing the costs of water treatment. Demonstration of success will allow SWW to approach the regulator (OFWAT) for permission to develop PES schemes to deliver these benefits in future. The Exmoor Mires project involves peatland restoration through blocking historic drainage ditches with a target of restoring 2000 ha by 2015. The primary benefits of the project have been to reduce runoff (32%) and increase water storage (additional 364 m3/ha). The success of the project has been aided by the land ownership and public engagement by the Exmoor National Park Authority and support from other public agencies and research from universities.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The coastal part of the Ezousa riverbed aquifer, stretches up to 8 km from the coasts of Pafos district. The measure implementation concern the utilization of the local aquifer as a natural reservoir for natural filtration, storage and reuse of water, by creating and feeding infiltration ponds located in the riverbed. The water consists of tertiary treated sewage originating from the Paphos sewage treatment plant.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Restoration of natural infiltration to groundwater
Sector: Hydro Morphology
In 1992, a field margin programme has been started by the city of Heilbronn, Germany. Farmers involvement plays an important role within the programme, which includes a compensation scheme for production losses. The establishment of the field margins aim mainly at controling erosion and run-off as well as at promoting biodiversity. Infiltration of rainwater into the soil is about 20% higher in the field margins than in the fields.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Buffer strips and hedges
Sector: Agriculture
Located in the regions Pays de la Loire and Poitou-Charentes, the Marais Poitevin is the 2nd largest wetland in France. About 2000 ha of floodmeadows are owned by local municipalities and commonly managed by local farmers. Such meadows play an important role for water regulation: they contribute to the storage of water during flood events, to groundwater recharge, to the removal of pollutants, etc. In the 1980s, in reaction to their destruction, management agreements between municipalities, the Parc Interrégional du Marais Poitevin and environmental NGOs as well as agreements between municipalities and farmers were signed. They reinforce the traditional agri-environmental management (pluri-specific pastures: cattle, horses, gooses) in order to preserve the numerous services provided by the Marais Poitevin.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Meadows and pastures Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Agriculture Hydro Morphology
The Lèze is a river located in the South of France, near the Pyrenees, on the French departments Ariège and Haute-Garonne. The case study concerns the implementation of floodbreaking hedges, which are located across the flood plain of the Lèze and are regularly spaced (every 300 to 500 metres). Partially obstructing the flow, such hedges can slow down running water and dissipate its energy. The project has been financed by the SMIVAL (20%), French State, local authorities, ERDF and the Water Agency (80% for all).
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Buffer strips and hedges
Sector: Agriculture
Reconstruction of the existing floodgate in confluence of a dying bypass channel with Ziarovnicky stream in Slovakia, and ensuring supplying of wetlands by water during the dry period and in case of flood events to facilitate the elimination of flood impact on this territory. It was financed by the Global Environmental Fund and carried out by the Global Water Partnership Slovensko (GWPS) and local authorities.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This scheme is part of the Sigmaplan programme, which is a long-term large-scale programme in Belgium aiming to improve flood storage of the Scheldt catchment. This particular scheme, on the Grote Nete, reconnects the river to its floodplain, which is currently isolated by dykes along both river banks. In the middle reach of the catchment, ‘controlled water storage areas’ will be developed, where a connection between the river and floodplain will be introduced but controlled. In the upper and lower catchment, free connection between the river and floodplain will be restored, allowing development of more natural forest, grassland and wetland habitats. The details of the scheme are still being finalised, taking in to account the results of studies and modelling, and implementation will be timed in the best interests of the local landowners.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Floodplain restoration and management Riverbed material renaturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Central Sava Basin (CSB), located in Croatia, is an area that combines natural values with the function of storage of floodwaters of the Sava River. One of the most important areas is the Lonjsko Polje area. About 23 706 ha of this Nature Park is used as the largest detention area in the Central Sava Basin. The purpose of the Life project "Central Posavina – Wading toward Integrated Basin Management" (2006 -2008) was to develop and improve an integrated river basin management approach in the Lonjsko Polje Nature Park and at a Central Posavina scale. This has been done by in particular developing consultative processes and appropriate structures which involve the various stakeholders for the conservation, utilisation and management of the water resources by ensuring non-structural flood control methods which take advantage of the natural functions of wetlands to supplement or replace existing flood control infrastructure.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project was implemented in 2009 by the Russenski Lom Nature Park Directorate, Club „Friends of Russenski Lom” and WWF with the support of the Ministry of Culture and was funded by WWF and the German Federal Ecological Foundation DBU. By the application of the principle “more space for the river – more safety for people” aimed to open the dykes and reduce the floods on the roads and the possibility for the water to return into the river.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The river flow regime was restored by re-meandering the river thus restoring also the floodplain. In total 2,1 km long river stretch was restored by digging and damming channelled lower stretch of the river Slampe, Lielupe River Basin District, Latvia. In parallel, hydrological regime was created in floodplain meadows along river in 105 ha. The project was implemented in 2005 with financial support of the EC LIFE Environment programme.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Fluvial and ecosystem restoration of the Arga-Aragón Rivers systems by combining measures. This initiative (partially carried out within the framework of the Mink Territory LIFE+ Project), implemented at the lower reaches of the Arga River and lower and medium reaches of the Aragón River (two of the main tributaries of the Ebro River, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, NE Spain), included a combination of measures involving meanders, wetlands, floodplains, riparian buffers and riverbed restoration and creation.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Forest riparian buffers Wetland restoration and management Floodplain restoration and management Re-meandering Stream bed re-naturalization Riverbed material renaturalization Natural bank stabilisation Elimination of riverbank protection
Sector: Forest Hydro Morphology
The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority had the aim with the Fortuna Wetland Restoration Project of connecting agricultural polder Fortuna (2,115 ha), Romania, to the Danube regime, restoration of hydrological regime and hydrological functions.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features Elimination of riverbank protection
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Germasogeia river (also known as Amathos river) crosses the premises of Germasogeia municipality, close to the city of Limassol on the south end of Cyprus. The aim of the measure implementation is to enable natural purification of water and recharge of Germasogeia aquifer, processes that were disrupted by the construction of an upstream dam. This is succeeded by gradually releasing water from the upstream dam and maintaining the high transmissivity of the riverbed.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Restoration of natural infiltration to groundwater
Sector: Hydro Morphology
LIFE Nature project "Transboundary conservation of the Phalacrocorax pygmaeus and Aythya nyroca in Romanian and Bulgarian key sites" in coordintion with WWF had the objective of ensuring living conditions for the two species by: reconstruction of nesting and feeding areas and implementing the best practices for fisheries management.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This case study is located in the city of Geneva, Switzerland. It describes how green roofs have been implemented on the roof of a hospital (0.55 ha) in order to decrease flood risks in urban areas. Indeed, this green roof is designed to retain about 30.25 m3/day water in the soil and plants and prevents it from running off. Compared to a traditionnal roof, the green roof retains about 60% of the water quantity that would run off otherwise. Moreover, green roofs are seen as a good way to recreate habitat in urban areas.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Green Roofs
Sector: Urban
Since 2003 the city of Vienna supports financially the implementation of green roofs with 8-25 € per m². The maximum subsidy can be 2200 €. Until 2010 16000 m² roof were transformed and 150 000 € invested.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Green Roofs
Sector: Urban
The fragments of floodplain forests (Fraxino - pannonicae -Ulmetum) along the River Körös were cut from the river by dykes during the river regulation works in the 19th century. The deteriorated groundwater conditions were worsened in a drought period during the 1980-1990’s that triggered action of the forestry service. Restoration of the river connection and the floodplain watercourse network provide surface water supply from the backwater of flood waves to the 2000 ha forest. The result of the habitat reconstruction work is a 38.8 km long water-flow and a water surface of 15.7 hectares, cc 400 hectares of the forest has a direct positive ecological impact. The water supply of the floodplain channel network has another source as well. A smaller volume comes from a fishery. In case of this second source the nutrient content of the fishery is assimilated in the forest as an additional service. Previously this load were let back into the river directly.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Land use conversion
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority (Romania) established a strategy for ecological restoration by a reintegration of the fish farm basins with the surrounding wetlands by opening the ring dikes around the basins. The positive effects are both ecological (wetland restoration, natural habitat and breeding area for fish and aquatic birds) and socio-economical (development of traditional activities, fishing, livestock and reed harvesting, creation of recreational areas for ecotourism) for the local people.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This Project realized a combination of three natural water retention measures: the restoration of meadows and pastures (A1) as well as a large floodplain (N3). Furthermore reduced tillage (A7) was introduced to the area. The location of the measures was in north-west Germany within the river basin district Weser (DE4000). They were directed at national policy contexts, namely the Lower Saxony otter protection program and the Lower Saxony wetlands protection program, although they also mitigate impacts identified by the WFD. As mentioned above, the measures also served the creation of large scale floodplains. As result a wide variety of stakeholders were involved in the implementation, ranging from nature conservation agencies and water managers to local farmers. Therefore, different parts of the measures could be financed by different sources. Apart from the main objectives of the project, it was also an important success in terms of cooperation of different stakeholders.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Meadows and pastures Green cover
Sector: Hydro Morphology Agriculture
This measure is located near the village of Gravenvoeren in eastern Belgium. It was a low-cost project to retain mudstreams/erosion consequences by the building of a horizontal dyke/dams at the bottom in the valley, which will retain the water longer in the valley, so reducing runoff and sediment transport to the villages downstream. Additionally they changed crop growing from corn to grasslands to help reduce erosion.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Meadows and pastures Basins and ponds
Sector: Agriculture Hydro Morphology
The objective is the improvement of the navigation conditions on the Danube between Calarasi and Braila, in Romania, by ensuring the minimum depths of 2.5 m of the fairway recommended by the Danube Commission during the entire year, including the dry season.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Riverbed material renaturalization Filter Strips
Sector: Hydro Morphology Urban
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Maintenance of forest cover in headwater areas Stream bed re-naturalization
Sector: Forest Hydro Morphology
The study is carried out by flow weighted sampling at the inlet and outlet of one infiltration trench in Kungsbacka south of Gothenburg, located under the parking lot of a supermarket. The observations and sampling were conducted during April to June 2012 and the results from five storm events were analyzed.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Infiltration Trenches
Sector: Urban
The Kylmäojankorpi case study represents research work where water quality (dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and temperature) and stream-stage measured continuously. The existing forest wetland (c.a. 11ha), Kylmäojankorpi, is located in Vantaa city which is neighboring the capital city Helsinki. The study results show that forested wetland improves and regulates stream water quality and flow regime. The obtained knowledge can be used to estimate environmental effects from the similar type of forested wetlands in urban areas.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Urban forest parks Basins and ponds Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Forest Hydro Morphology
The Landscape Revitalization Program is a main tool for solving ecosystem problems but also flood and drought risks included improvements in rainwater retention, primarily, in the territory where rainwater falls or in damaged parts on the landscape. The program restore landscape retention ability by different water retention elements.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This scheme is currently under development as part of a large residential scheme at Leidsche Rijn, near Utrecht in the Netherlands. The scheme is ambitious in terms of its water management and extensive use of SuDS. It aims to prevent discharges from the site as far as possible (through storage and infiltration) as well as to reduce inputs of poor-quality water from elsewhere. Management of existing and new water bodies on the site will be integral to the scheme, providing improved ecology and recreational opportunities. The time scale for development was expected to be 15-20 years, but due to the economic crisis the overall timescale has increased. A vertical reedbed test site has already been implemented within the site, which some data are available for, although that forms only part of the overall scheme.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Permeable surfaces Swales Filter Strips Soakaways Detention Basins Retention Ponds Infiltration basins
Sector: Urban
The project sought to apply an eco-remediation methodology at the landfill site of Dobrava, in the agricultural lowland of Pannonia (Municipality of Ormoz) Slovenia. The project aimed to demonstrate a successful “green technology” to reduce the environmental impact of landfill sites through a closed hydrological and pollution cycle to complement and exceed existing legislation in the promotion of sustainable landfilling technologies. The methodology consists in establishing dense woodland as a water barrier and in constructing a wetland for leachate treatment aiming to provide efficient water protection to reduce the risk of surface and groundwater contamination.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Managed Aquifer Recharge in Los Arenales (Segovia, Spain). As showed by data obtained after 8 effective recharge cycles carried out in an experimental area (Cubeta de San Tiuste) at Los Arenales Aquifer (Segovia, Duero River Basin, Spain), Managed Aquifer Recharge can be more than an effective measure for storing large quantities of water in underground aquifers to naturally increase the quantity of groundwater in times of shortage: it can also result in an enhanced natural condition of aquifers and water availability. Also, the natural cleaning process of water percolating through the soils when entering the AGR showed its potential for providing improved water quality
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Restoration of natural infiltration to groundwater
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project coordinated by the Ministry of Environment involves a mire restoration program in the Sumava National Park, Czech Republic, The aim was the raise of the water table to a natural (per-drainage) level, decrease the fluctuations, and retain sufficient water in the mires especially during the driest periods. To make it possible, the activities carried out were restoration of natural (or near-natural) mire hydrology, enhancement of peat-forming vegetation and processes, conservation of natural mire biodiversity and involvement of the public into local mire conservation.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Körös stream catchment lies in a droughts stricken region of Hungary, it is a heavily modified water body. There are nutrient overload in the stream and in the ground water as well both from point and diffuse sources that are both agricultural and urban. Meanwhile recurring water logging periods cause temporary flood problems for the settlement and the agricultural areas during early spring and in case of torrential rains. The water directorate in order to cope with the situation upgrade of the stream’s water management structures to be able to cope with both water extremes: floods and water shortage. It reconnected former floodplains at the estuary on a 2500 meter section. Also upgraded the sluices to let them able to retain water but cleaned the bottlenecks to facilitate runoff at flood events. At the settlement section of the stream the development targeted to provide the necessary capacity to drain the residential area. Upstream of the settlement retention pond were created to control runoff through the town and store water.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Retention Ponds Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Urban Hydro Morphology
The Odelouca River: Natural bank stabilization and riparian buffer galleries as part of mitigation and compensatory measures and through the use of bio-engineering techniques. This project carried out in the Odelouca River (sub-catchment of the Arade River Basin, Algarve Region, South of Portugal) entailed the implementation of measures focused on the use of bio-engineering or natural techniques for rehabilitation of riparian buffer zones and river banks (such as river banks resectioning and placement of geotextile; live crib walls and vegetated gabions/rock armour construction and placement; planting of rehabilitated banks with native plant species; construction of artificial islands in the river channel, and clearance of invasive riparian plant species).
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Natural bank stabilisation Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
In the framework of a research programme, no tillage field trials have been installed in lower Austria. They showed a significant reduction of runoff, as well as a reduced loss of nutrients. In addition, reduced or no tillage leads to less loss of soil, and an increased content of organic carbon in the soil.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Green cover No till agriculture Low till agriculture
Sector: Agriculture
In 2010, the Nummela Gateway Wetland Park (2ha), Finland was constructed both as water environment mitigation landscapes and as urban park. Monitoring of the Nummela Gateway wetland park over a period of three years shows that constructed wetlands rapidly self-establish, resulting in an increase in biodiversity and the establishment of several ecosystem services (e.g. erosion and flood control, and reduction of pollutants in runoff water). The constructed wetland also provides a range of other benefits including opportunities for recreation and education.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Retention Ponds
Sector: Urban
Oroklini lake is a waterbody located close to the south coast of Cyprus next to the city of Larnaca and within the boundaries of Oroklini village. The waterbody has been subject to modifications and degradation by implementing hydraulic measures in the mid 40’s, in order to desiccate the lake, due to health concerns. The purpose of NWRM implementation was to increase water retention and restore the wetland habitats in order to meet the needs of two important bird species, but also to increase biodiversity. The measures included among others, retention measures aiming at securing water availability in the upper basin of the lake and measures aiming at increasing the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Ecological flooding has been introduced in a polder area next to the Rhine, near Altenheim in Germany. This measure improved the ecological functionality of the area, and created at the same time valuable space for recreation. Issues of forest management, a rising groundwater level and an increased mosquito population had to be dealt with.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Restoration and reconnection of seasonal streams Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features Forest riparian buffers Re-naturalisation of polder areas
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
The innovative ecoremediation (ERM) system, which consist in a sedimentation pond for the deposition of coarse particles and reduction of current flow velocity, for treatment of the polluted tributary of Glinščica, Slovenia, was installed in 2006 by Limnos Itd.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
DANUBE FORESTS, coordinated by BROZ - Regional Association for Nature Conservation and Sustainable Development and funded by LIFE program, preserves the remaining natural floodplain forests in the Slovak part of the Danube inland delta and introduce sound and sustainable forest management practices to the area.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
A rain garden was installed along the verges of a residential road in Nottingham, England. The purpose of the rain garden was to control the rate of runoff and water quality reaching the downstream watercourse (Day Brook).
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Rain Gardens
Sector: Urban
The Polish governmental agreement on water retention in small scale infrastructures was signed in 1995 to improve the structure of the water balance of small catchments by 2015. The regional authorities (voivodships) had to elaborate the programme of small retention development which was accomplished in 1996 for most of the regions. The planned increase in the volume of retention waters was based mainly on small water bodies (ponds), which was predicted to get the retention of the order of 860 million m3 (4789 reservoirs).
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Reconstruction of the Lepiku channel that is a part of the drainage system, which starts from the new residential area next to the Tallinn Botanic Garden and includes wetlands, detention ponds, ditches and channels and debouches into Pirita river. The aim was to improve the quality of the storm water that flows into the Pirita river. The river Pirita is a part of Natura 2000 site and flows into the Baltic Sea. The length of the reconstructed channel part is ca 195 m and the works included: widening of channel bottom in different segments, creating artificial dykes and rapids and creating suitable conditions to the aquatic plants exhibits in Botanic Garden.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Channels and rills
Sector: Urban
Reconstruction of dams and sluice gates, blocking of drainage ditches and creation of a hydrological network to allow water coming from the Little Carpathians to flow through the Sur Fen Nature Reserve, in Slovakia. Funded by LIFE+ program
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Recovery of the climate and landscape via integrated rainwater retention in the damaged parts of Slovakia utilizing water retention measures (small dams, retention ponds, rainwater gardens, re-cultivated logging roads). The project coordination was WaterandPeople NGO and funded by LIFE program
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The case study site is located upstream of a captage area, where aqueducts abstract water for Venice, Vicenza and other towns: there is thus a demand for increased groundwater recharge and water purification. In addition, Bosco Limite provides a wide range of good and services, such as groundwater recharge, CO2 fixation, biodiversity safeguard, production of high quality wood and biomass for energetic purposes, and recreational-touristic services. The measure was implemented in an area previously used for intensive agriculture, and activities with high economic returns. Therefore, the main challenge of the project was to find alternative, competitive sources of income for landowners who made their land available for reforestation. The establishment of PES schemes for a variety of services (water provision, carbon sequestration, biodiversity and environmental education) was key for the success of the project.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Targeted planting for 'catching' precipitation
Sector: Forest
The project of rehabilitation of heaths and mires on the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau (Belgium). It consists in wetland restoration. Actions include restoring 1400 ha of peaty and wet habitats, abandoning spruce plantation for natural habitats on 630 ha and regenerating 400 ha of oak and birch forests.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Seymaz renaturation project takes place in Switzerland, along the Seymaz river which is located in the eastern part of Geneva canton. The project consists in several renaturation measures: eliminating concrete casts, softing riverbanks and widening riverbed. A wetland (marshland) is also re-created. The project is part of the cantonal program which aims at improving ecological and countryside quality and reducing flood risk by managing peakflows. Two stakeholders groups have been involved in the project implementation: the Charte Seymaz group (“negociation” group on the renaturation program which include all concerned stakeholders) and the management group (Responsible for coordinating and managing the local arrangements). A main constraint of the project have been the nature of land use and property in the area concerned by the NWRM, since famers were mostly impacted by the project and first opposed to it.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Stream bed re-naturalization Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The WETLIFE project aimed at reversal of negative changes in Amalva and Žuvintas mires. Restoration of hydrological conditions necessary for regeneration of mire habitats was the main key to reaching the aim. Additionally, the project had a goal to facilitate a shift in agricultural practices on peatlands in order to improve conditions for biodiversity and reduce rate of peat mineralization with all related environmental consequences. Finally, the project expected to raise awareness about wetlands and to serve as an example of successful wetland restoration and more sustainable use that could be replicated in other parts of the country.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
"The Salt of Life Project", funded by LIFE+ program of EU, aims to restore and secure long-term preservation of the Atanasovsko Lake, in the eastern coast of Bulgaria, improving habitats conditions of the roosting and breeding sites by dykes and barriers repairs.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The measure was implemented in Matsalu National Park, Estonia, a former coastal meadow site (Natura 2000 and Ramsar site) next to a big Salmi coastal meadow with many priority species. The old non-functioning small ditches were closed and scraped to restore the wetland hydrology and breeding and feeding grounds for waders and amphibians. Before the restoration works the area was used mainly for bovine grazing and the restoration did not change the conditions for that. However, due to the activities drinking water will be better available for the cattle. The project was implemented in 2013.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This site was one of nine included in the LIFE05 project to restore priority woodland habitats in Ireland. The Durrow site is located on the floodplain of the river Erkina, and had been affected by planting of non-native conifers and associated drainage. A network of shallow drainage ditches covered the entire site, and was found to be adversely affecting the native alluvial woodland by reducing retention time of floodwaters on the floodplain. To counter this, a total of 350 dams were installed on ditches across the site.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Overland flow areas in peatland forests
Sector: Forest
The aim of the EC LIFE programme's co-financed project is to improve the conditions for the protection of water habitats in the Middle Basin of the Biebrza Valley by: controlled management and irrigation of the area in order to stop the degradation processes of hydrogenic habitats within the water system of the Rudzki Canal – the Ełk River – the Jegrznia River – the Woźnawiejski Canal; creating habitat conditions for avifauna of open marshlands. One of the project activity is to build water constructions to support water retention particularly in dry years. The phase I of the restoration activities will be accomplished by 2016. Additionally, phase II has been also already launched.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The annual cycle of flows in the Morava River, south of Bratislava, and its tributaries were modified in three sites leading to restoration of the wetland biotic complexes and movements between fragments of habitat isolated by land use. Thanks to Biodiversity Protection project, funded by the Global environmental Trust Fund and national funds, 4 oxbows and over 19km of floodplain were restored.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The main goal of the implemented NWRM was to restore natural hydrological regime in drained raised bog Aklais located in nature reserve area being also the Natura 2000 site in Latvia. Building of the dam was chosen as most appropriate method. Due to natural conditions, there was no possibility to use technique thus dams were built by hand. Unfortunately the part of the dams is partly washed out by waters now and in a result raised bog is not restored as expected. The main lesson for future is to use adequate technique and materials to ensure durability of the dams.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Executive Forest Agency (EFA) is the coordinating beneficiary and together with the international conservation organization WWF work on a project that protects and restores the 11 habitat types rivers and wetlands in the forests on an area of 21 thousand ha in 10 Bulgarian nature parks - Bulgarka , Vitosha, Vratsa Balkan, Golden Sands Park, Rila Monastery, Ruse Lom, Blue Rocks, Strandja, Shumen Plateau.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Forest
Hermance is a French/swiss transboundary river. From 2006, in the frame of a transboundary river management program, the SYMASOL has been implementing restoration measures along river in order to decrease flood risk downstream, supported amongst other by Geneva Canton. The river mouth have been widenned, the river has been remeandered, 2,3km of the river have been renaturated and vegetation have been planted back on banks. The Mermes marshland water retention power has been exploited through the creation of a retention pond. In addition to flood risk reduction for a hundred houses, the renaturation and restoration of a path along the river provided social benefits: people happen to appropriate again their river.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering Stream bed re-naturalization Riverbed material renaturalization Natural bank stabilisation
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic carried out the retoration of Cerny Potok stream which was based on common principles of stream restoration. The main aim of the restoration was to decrease the volume of the restored stream-beds especially by reducing their depth. Modifications within the channelized stream-bed were not sufficient, therefore new stream-beds were proposed and constructed. They were reconnected with the remains of the original stream course or directed freely to the alluvial meadows.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Stream bed re-naturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Ernz Blanche (Luxembourg) river restoration project aimed at erasing the effect of the river chanelling, which caused the river uniformisation and floods downstream. The project consisted in a remeandering, increase of the base level of the river and widening of the riverbed.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Odense is a river in southern Denmark. It was channelized and deepened in the late 1940s to improve agriculture. The NWRM consists of a series of measures to restore floodplain connectivity along a 17 km section of the river. The measures will prevent flooding in downstream towns and cities. This will have a number of effects on the pressures relevant for the WFD. Reduced risk for flooding of urban environment reduces the risk for storm overflows from sewers as well as diffuse pollution resulting from flooding in general. Re-meandering reduces the pressure from previous physical alterations for flood protection and agricultural purposes. It will also potentially have a positive effect on ground water recharge in temporarily flooded areas.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Floodplain restoration and management Re-meandering Riverbed material renaturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Restoration in Czech Republic of a raised bog almost completely destroyed by industrial peat mining and establishment of wetland communities and peat-forming vegetation with possible return of relict peat-bog species. Sumava National Park and local authorities helped in the performance financed with national funds.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
WWF Danube Carpathina program, together with local people from Mindya village in the region of Veliko Turnovo, restored the connection of Veselina River, a tributary of Yantra, with its former meander near the village.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The Dimitrovgrad municipality performed Restoration, protection and sustainable development of protected area "Zlato pole", in Bulgaria, providing of additional water quantities for maintaining the hydrological regime of the protected place, construction of a hydraulic structure and a channel for supplying water from the river of Marinka in the protected area.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project LivingFountains, carried out in Slovenia, funding from the European Regional Development Fund and national funds, envisages the restoration and arrangement of 32 water wells and ponds as monuments of cultural heritage.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This Project combined several natural water retention measures: the restoration of meadows and pastures (A1), reduced tillage (A7), a reduced stocking density (A12), and the restoration of wetlands (N2). The project area was located in north-west Germany within the river basin district Weser (DE4000). As funded under the LIFE Program, it was directed at European policy contexts, namely the WFD, Habitats Directive, and Birds Directive. A wide variety of stakeholders was involved in the implementation process, ranging from nature conservation agencies and NGO’s, as well as water managers to local farmers. The project achieved an increase of the population of meadow birds in the area, and was therefore successful. Furthermore, the constructive exchange of interests and opinions, leading to common benefits for different stakeholders has to be considered an additional success.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Meadows and pastures Low till agriculture Reduced stocking density Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Agriculture Hydro Morphology
The main objective of the project is to conserve the biodiversity, the natural habitats, the wild species of flora and fauna and to assure an efficient management of protected natural areas, in particular, management of the ecological network Natura 2000 through reconstruction of Comana Wetland within Giurgiu County.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers
Sector: Hydro Morphology
A linking canal with a lock, constructed in 1994, enabled the artificial respiration of Srebarna Lake in the Bulgarian border with Romania. Thanks to this canal, water from the Danube can now flow into the lake every year.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Elimination of riverbank protection
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Kuresoo bog restoration action is an example in Estonia where it will be possible to assess the impact of hydrological regime restoration to Sphagnum mossgroth and effectiveness of different damming technologies. Even though there were studies made for the area and restoration then in practice it turned out that additionally to wooden dams also peat dykes were built as wooden dams did not rise the water lever equally. The measures were implemented in 2013.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
River restoration and flood management measures were implemented on the River Quaggy in London. The measures were necessary due to increasing urban development in the river valley and natural flood plain, with an associated increase in fluvial flooding. A suite of measures was implemented between 1990 and 2005, including de-culverting a reach of river and creating associated floodplain; building a detention basin; set-back flood defences; channel re-profiling. This scheme took a catchment-scale view in order to develop the best solution, and worked with a multi-disciplinary team as well as having extensive community involvement.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Re-meandering Detention Basins
Sector: Hydro Morphology Urban
The case study is located in the draining basin of the Venice Lagoon. It is characterized by intensive agriculture and by a web of drainage channels discharging into the rivers. This case study, in particular, includes measures on the drainage channels discharging into the Dese river, one of the main water bodies of the Venice Lagoon basin. The Veneto Region, through the “Plan for diffuse pollution prevention and restoration of water in the draining basins of the Venice Lagoon” financed measures of re-calibration of riverbeds aimed at the renaturation of the hydraulic web, to increase the time of permanence of water and phytodepuration processes in the draining basin. In this framework, the Consorzio Acque Risorgive implemented a series of extended interventions on the area under its responsibility. This case study was implemented as part of these interventions. In particular, it aimed at re-structuring the effluents of the mid course of the Dese river (Rio S. Martino, Rio S. Ambrogio and Scolo Desolino). Such effluents are mostly draining channels, draining water from agricultural fields to the Dese river. The primary objective was the reduction of the amount of N and P reaching the Venice lagoon through phytodepuration. However, at the same time the project carried out the restoration of the draining channel web aimed at reducing flooding issues affecting the area. Over the years, the area has in fact been subject to massive urban development (new residential and industrial areas), with consequent soil sealing and culverted effluents: this had a devastating effect on the hydrological system. The strong floods of 2006 and 2007 on the city of Mestre, for example, were a consequence of this. The following measures were implemented: (i) Riparian buffer zones; (ii) Creation of wetlands; (iii) River bed enlargement; (iv) Creation and reconnection of floodplain and new buffer strips; and (v) Channel naturalization, creation of new meandering channel. The ability of the measures to address two pressing environmental issues in the area was a key success factor. The measures proved in fact very effective in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents and, ultimately, into the Venice Lagoon, as well as mitigating flood risk in the area. During the implementation phase, some residents complained for the annoyance (e.g. the dust lifted by the machinery). However, during the first intense precipitation, the rivers/ channels did not overflow (they would have before implementation), so residents understood the key role of measures for flood mitigation. Furthermore, the overall decrease of N levels in the Venice lagoon, which followed the implementation of these and other similar measures in several sites within the draining basin, contributed to gain a positive public perception of these measures.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Buffer strips and hedges Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering Riverbed material renaturalization
Sector: Agriculture Hydro Morphology
This case study is located in Switzerland, in the city of Chênes Bourgerie. It presents one of the natural water retention measures that can be implemented in urban areas to reduce runoff and flood risks. A retention pond is implemented on a plot to retain about 450m3 of water, which contribute to retain water at the watershed scale (279m3 for 3,1ha). The pond also provides a "natural" area which can be used as recreative area for neighboring private owners and contributes to reduce mosquitos density.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Retention Ponds
Sector: Urban
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Stream bed re-naturalization Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Restoration of the length of the Borova stream, increased by 6.3 km a shallow meandering stream bed, where sections of speedily running water alternated with sections of a slow stream were created, financed by the Ministry of Environment of Czech Republic.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering Riverbed material renaturalization Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
At three different sections of the Austrian Drau the river bed was enlarged and restoration works have taken place. Moreover, 25 ha of riparian forest were created as well as meadows, lakes and several river branches.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Re-meandering Stream bed re-naturalization Riverbed material renaturalization Natural bank stabilisation Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This project, restoration and conservation of riparian forests, ended in 2012 with the recovery of a long-term conservation of habitats and species in protected area "Reka Maritsa". It was carried out by the local authority of Dimitrovgrad municipality.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Forest
Next to the Ill river in Alsace, France, a project has been initiated which combines classical flood protection (e.g. dyke construction) with natural water retention measures (e.g. riparian buffers). The project aims at reducing peak flows, increasing water storage, controling erosion and improving biodiversity. It has been initiated by the Alsace Region.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Meadows and pastures Forest riparian buffers Stream bed re-naturalization Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers
Sector: Agriculture Forest Hydro Morphology
The restoration of riparian floodplain habitats in reserve "Dolna Topchia", Bulgaria, was performed by Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water – Stara Zagora. It was designed and constructed hydraulic structures on river Tundzha (a weir and one channel of 900 m) for recovery of riparian wetland biotypes maintained in the reserve and run off on his sleeve Malka Tundzha.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This case study focuses on the restoration of the Aurino stream. River restoration measures were implemented along the Aurino stream as part of the Aurino management plan. Interventions were implemented in different moments within the years 2003-2011. The objectives were flood protection and, secondarily, the improvement of the natural environment. Different interventions were implemented to widen the river bed, such as for example: (i) forests were cleared in the relevant areas, to add space to the river bed; (ii) (artificial) river banks were lowered and enlarged; (iii) re-activation or creation of lateral river branches; (iv) measures to raise the river bed’s level. The Autonomous Province of Bozen – Hydraulic engineering department was in charge of funding, planning, designing and implementing the measures. Before implementation, all measures were extensively presented to, and discussed with, municipalities, farmers, fishermen associations and local communities; informing and involving local communities and key stakeholders was the key to successful implementation. The availability of land was the main constraining factor: most of the measures were implemented on public land (state or municipal land). Only in the case of Gatzauer/ Gais Lot III measures were implemented mostly on private land, but this required compensation. When implementing these NWRM, interventions had to seek a balance between the desired outcome and the economic activities in the area of intervention. In this case, for example, bringing back the ground water level back to the original level would not have been a desirable outcome for farmers. Negotiations with farmers led, on the one hand, to a reduced ambition of the interventions, but on the other hand it also led to acceptance of the measures and, ultimately, contributed to the success of implementation.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Riverbed material renaturalization Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The River Tolka runs through Dublin, Ireland. A series of measures was applied to the urban sections of the river to slow flood flows, reduce pollution and support wildlife. These included the establishment of retention ponds to manage runoff storage; bank engineering to slow flows and prevent erosion; and planting trees along the river to slow runoff. Two phases of retention pond construction have been carried out, the latter as part of a wider ‘Greenway’ project to develop a green corridor with cycling route.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Urban forest parks Natural bank stabilisation Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
This example is one of many schemes being implemented through the national 'Room for the River' programme in the Netherlands. This particular measure involves setting back the dyke of the River Waal, and incorporating a new channel in to the expanded area of floodplain that can take additional flood flow from the Waal. The measures are also incorporated with a new area of urban development and will create an urban river park within the city of Nijmegen.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Measures to attenuate runoff were installed in the small Belford catchment, in northeast England, in order to reduce the risk of flooding to the village downstream. The installations involved a network of small measures to capture and delay runoff from the rural catchment, including detention basins and overland flow features, as well as sediment capture measures to improve water quality.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds Coarse woody debris Peak flow control structures Sediment capture ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
During last years the construction of the sediment capture ponds as a part of the drainage system has become a good practice measure in the forests managed by Latvian State Forests, therefore some of the environmental impacts of this measures has been monitored to justify its costs. The results indicate differences between monitoring sites set up on mineral or peatland soils as well as between different measured parameters. Additionally, it seems that the effectiveness of the measure depends on the skills and quality of the work carried out by professionals constructing the ponds.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Sediment capture ponds
Sector: Forest
The Project 'Slowing the Flow at Pickering' implements multiple natural flood risk measures including low level bunds, large woody debris dams, planting riparian and floodplain woodland, planting farm woodland, blocking moorland drains and establishing no-burn buffer zones, blocking forest drains and implementing farm-scale measures. The aim of the project is to show how land management measures can help to reduce flood risk from a river in the town and is implemented in close cooperation with local stakeholders. The project involved both the Pickering Beck and adjacent River Seven catchments, the description of measures described below relate to the former. The town of Pickering in North Yorkshire has a history of flood events, most recently in 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2007; the last of these causing an estimated £7m (€8.05m) of damage. The Slowing the Flow at Pickering project was one of three pilot projects funded by under Defra’s multi-objective flood management demonstration programme. A flood alleviation capital scheme was also proposed but deemed unaffordable under current national cost-benefit thresholds. The main principle of the project is to achieve flood risk management using natural processes. This involves developing an understanding of how land use and management across the entire catchment contribute to flood risk. The project is also concerned with wider environmental, economic and social benefits. These include improved water quality, provision of new and/or improvement of existing habitats, enhanced carbon sequestration, enhanced local skill base in estate management, improved recreation/tourism access and increased public understanding and engagement in land management for flood risk reduction.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds Coarse woody debris Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
The measures implemented at two river within the city of Hamburg (Germany) included the restoration of rivers and ponds (N1), the revitalization of flowing waters (N5), natural bank stabilization (N10), and channels and rills (U5). They targeted the National Biodiversity Strategy of Germany as well as the achievement of a good ecological status as defined by the WFD. For the identification of locations for possible measures the general public was involved using online forms. The implementation was then carried out by a local chapter of the German nature conservation NGO NABU. This NWRM proves to be highly effective while easy and cheap to implement, it is therefore considered a success.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Natural bank stabilisation Stream bed re-naturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Forest ecosystems in Poland have long suffered from drought. From the mid-90s, the Polish forest management authority undertook a variety of small-scale water retention works, financed from a combination of its own and external funds (i.e. the Polish Ecofund, and the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management). In 2006, the authority consolidated all its initiatives into a single project ‘Increasing retention and preventing floods and droughts in forest ecosystems in lowland.’ It is the first to be conducted on such a large scale, combining water retention in forest ecosystems with the protection against surface water run-off. The project is funded by EU Cohesion Fund, 2007-2013.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Permeable surfaces Swales Filter Strips Detention Basins Retention Ponds
Sector: Urban
The Sutlansko Lake area is a wetland with a high biological diversity. The Vonarje reservoir was initially built for drinking water supply and flood protection. The reservoir was drained due to difficulties encountered to manage its water quality. Now it operates as a dry retention basin for flood protection. At the bottom of the reservoir, wetland ecosystems developed. For this reason, the area of the reservoir on the Slovene side has been declared as a Natura 2000 site.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The initiative is aimed at the recovering and maintenance of a cultural and historical heritage with the promotion of new agricultural activities (not necessarily for economic purposes). A large part of terraces are no longer used today, as landowners either emigrated or are too old to take care of them. As a consequence, these terraces are increasingly degraded. The Committee "Adotta un terrazzamento" (Adopt a Terrace) acts as a mediator among landowners and people interested in "adopting" a terrace": with a contribution of 10 euros, any private citizen can be assigned a terraced plot to establish a vegetable garden. In exchange, the private citizen commits to restore and take care of the terrace at his/her disposal. The recovery of the terraces permits the valorization of the local resources, combining social/economic aims with the need to safeguard infrastructures that prevent hydro-geological instability.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Traditional terracing
Sector: Agriculture
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Re-meandering Buffer strips and hedges Riverbed material renaturalization Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology Agriculture
A series of experiments, created by University of Helsinki, Fifth Dimension – Green Roofs in Urban Areas -research program. The green roofs are constructed in nine towns of Finland. The aim is to study green roofs from the perspectives of biodiversity and ecological, social and economical sustainability. The special case study to analyse the costs and benefits related to green roofs were carried out for Helsinki in 2013.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Green Roofs
Sector: Urban
Within an Austrian LIFE Nature project, gravel banks have been established along the Danube in the Wachau, and dried site-arms have been reconnected. The measures aimed at improving biodiversity through providing spawning habitats, as well as controling erosion and run-off. As a particularity, the gravel used in the project stemmed from maintenance works for the shipping channel of the Danube. The project has been initiated and implemented by a local association (Arbeitskreis Wachau), which includes several communities.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Reconnection of oxbow lakes and similar features Riverbed material renaturalization Floodplain restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project refers to water retention management in the broader area of Ancient Olympia, Elia, Peloponnese, Greece; that is afforestation of mountain areas. The measures include the temporary installation of structures utilizing locally available timber in order to increase water retention as well as targeted planting of forests in mountain areas that can help stabilize hill slopes, thereby reduce erosion and potentially leading to greater water retention in the mountain areas. The primary measures targets include flood control and flood risk mitigation and the secondary biodiversity conservation. The main success factors was the positive attitude of decision makers, the willing of stakeholders and the positive public perception and the existing expert knowledge and tools.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Maintenance of forest cover in headwater areas
Sector: Forest
Water retention spaces, reforestation and grazing management in southern Portugal. The ecovillage of Tamera is a community of 190 permanent residents (and more than 100 non-permanent inhabitants) living in a property in the South of Portugal (Monte do Cerro, municipality of Odemira). The application designed and implemented in this location consists of the creation of “Water Retention Landscapes” by means of the following measures: reforestation and the planting of mixed-culture ground cover vegetation; holistic grazing management; keyline design; terracing; swales; and the most well-know measure, the construction of water retention spaces in the form of decentralized lakes and ponds.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Targeted planting for 'catching' precipitation Land use conversion Continuous cover forestry Crop rotation Traditional terracing Basins and ponds Lake restoration Swales
Sector: Forest Agriculture Hydro Morphology Urban
The Nagyszéksós-tó project aimed safeguarding natural and recreational functions of the Nagyszéksós lake protected area through the improved retention of water from excess water periods 1.2 million m3 and the provision of surplus water from the nearby village's water treatment plan giving extra treatment through a newly developed wetland area. The other goals of the project are the improved infiltration to the groundwater and restored drainage capacity of the water system to prevent long lasting water logging periods on agricultural fields.The nearby village, Mórahalom also benefited from the development through improved recreation conditions and cultural, educational possibilities in the area.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Basins and ponds Wetland restoration and management Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve is the largest raised bog (2,434ha) in the northern Lithuania region (a farming region) with ridge-pool complexes, numerous small lakes (over 120 pools each less than 2ha in area) and surrounding wet forests. In 65 ha of selected bogs and meadows restored with18.5km of ditches dammed Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve. The measures were implemented in the frame of larger UNDP-GEF project in 2004-2010.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
The "Life for the Burgas lakes" is supported by the financial intrument of the EU LIFE+ Nature and Biodiversity. Project aims to secure the long-term conservation of the five bird species included in Annex I of the Birds Directive and the sustainable management of their wetland habitats around the city of Burgas. With a duration of 4 years it was carried out in coordination with Bourgas Municipality, Chernomorsk sonitsi JSC, BBF and RSPB.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Lake restoration
Sector: Hydro Morphology
This project improves the conservation status of the floodplain bird species that are protected in the Natura 2000 sites SPA Dunajské luhy (Slovakia) and SPA Szigetkoz (Hungary). It is funded by LIFE program.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering Forest riparian buffers
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest
The short term project objectives were to create 250 ha of wetland by raising the water level of the embanked area with a regulating water outlet structure, creation of a variety of habitats -from dry land to spots with deep water- by digging and opening up of old river meanders that had been filled up. The project is a good experience in the field of ecological restoration, involving purchase of land, participatory planning and co-operation with other organizations, including NGO’s. The project also had long term objectives related to the creation of a network of wetlands, integration and nature and water policies, the implementation of European directives and the strengthening environmental NGOs and education. The project was implemented by a Romanian regional water authority with the support of Dutch partners. The Ciobarciu project was evaluated at the end of the project by the project team and by a Romanian University, who interviewed 55 inhabitants of villages where the (previous) owners lived. After a period of five years, the project was evaluated again.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Wetland restoration and management Re-meandering
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project was carried out in the period 2002 – 2008 by the Ministry of the Environment and Water in Bulgaria and the main donor was the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The performance was the restoration of two wetlands along Danube River by construction of engineering facilities, including sluices, channels, dykes to protect the adjacent land, as well as access roads. The project aimed to enable water flow into former wetlands, provide options for controlled flooding, optimized trapping of nutrient elements, and restoration of biodiversity and fish populations.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The application was funded by LIFE and other national funds and The State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic as responsible with others NGOs with the objective of restoring favourable conservation status of breeding and migrating birds from Birds Directive and Habitats Directive in the Senne and Medzibodrozie SPAs through improving habitats in key locations.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
WETREST Project, in Zahorie Lowland (western Slovakia), takes actions focusing restoration activities and increasing awareness about wetlands conservation and restoration. The project is funded by the LIFE program in coordination with the Ministry of Environment.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
The project will improve the hydrological conditions, remove the overgrowth, remove the invasive alien fish species in Gornji kal and Mura oxbow lakes, prevent the destruction of endangered habitats and the disturbance of endangered species by building footpaths in Zelenci and in Pohorje bogs, prepare guidelines for management of pilot areas and integrate them into sector plans, which will ensure a sustainable conservation of pilot areas.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Wetland restoration and management
Sector: Hydro Morphology
Órbigo River (Duero River Basin, northwest of Spain) ecological status improvement. The budle of measures applied within the framework of this project (2013 IRF European Riverprize finalist) aimed to promote floodplain reconnection and restoration, revitalisation of flowing water, levelling of longitudinal barriers, natural bank stabilisation, elimination of riverbank protection and restoration and riparian buffer restoration and maintenance. The intended impacts of these NWRM were to improve the river (lateral and longitudinal) connectivity and dynamics.
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study: Floodplain restoration and management Forest riparian buffers Removal of dams and other longitudinal barriers Natural bank stabilisation Elimination of riverbank protection Stream bed re-naturalization
Sector: Hydro Morphology Forest