LIMNOTOP: Eco-remediation near Ormoz, Slovenia

National Id
Site name
Ormoz, Dobrava
The project sought to apply an eco-remediation methodology at the landfill site of Dobrava, in the agricultural lowland of Pannonia (Municipality of Ormoz)
Slovenia. The project aimed to demonstrate a successful “green technology” to reduce the environmental impact of landfill sites through a closed hydrological
and pollution cycle to complement and exceed existing legislation in the promotion of sustainable landfilling technologies. The methodology consists in
establishing dense woodland as a water barrier and in constructing a wetland for leachate treatment aiming to provide efficient water protection to reduce the risk of surface and groundwater contamination.
Vzhodna Slovenija
RBD code
Data provider
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study
Climate zone
cool temperate dry
Mean rainfall
Mean rainfall unit
Average temperature
Case Study Info
Light or indepth?
Monitoring impacts effects
Monitoring location
Monitoring parameters
The performance of a prototype was monitored throughout a two and a half year period. Monitoring of leachate composition was performed and the contribution of constructed wetland to leachate purification was evaluated. The accumulation of leachate contaminants was followed in all of the subunits of the remediation system; in plant and soil material.
Performance impact estimation method
Edge of Field/Plot
Performance impact estimation information
Laboratory analyses of the samples, Soil samples preparation, BOD analysis of leachate, ICP-MS analiysis of leachate and soil samples
Application scale
Field Scale
Installation date
Performance timescale
1 - 4 years
Area subject to Land use change or Management/Practice change (ha)
Size unit
Design capacity description
The construction of the prototype of the landfill site rehabilitation comprised complete reconstruction of 4 ha of the landfill with the leachate recirculation to the landfill vegetative cover, with soil layers permitting infiltration of water into the landfill body. The pre-treatment of the leachate took place in a constructed wetland of 1,000 m2, from where water was pumped through an underground irrigation system to the covered part of the landfill.
Favourable preconditions
The LIMNOTOP project demonstrates an innovative technique of landfill rehabilitation which enables further waste degradation after the landfill closure, thus attaining stabilization of waste before the end of the useful life of liner materials. A closed hydraulic and pollution cycle was applied in the system of the landfill. The rehabilitation process includes natural systems which enable leachate treatment with stabilization and detoxification of pollutants, as well as extraction of residual nutrients in leachate for the growth of the wood biomass.
Design contractual arrangement
Arrangement type Responsibility Role Comments Name
Design consultation activity
Activity stage Key issues Name Comments
Design land use change
Land use change type
Design authority
Authority type Role Responsibility Name Comments
Initiation of the measure
Municipality Ormož
Project beneficiary
University of Ljubljana
Faculty for Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Department for chemistry and biochemistry, Laboratory for inorganic chemistry
LIMNOS, Company for applied Ecology
Private company, subcontractor
Communal company Ormož
Municipal communal service provider - public institute
Institute for physical biology
Private company
Key lessons
There are numerous possibilities for the application and transferability of the approach demonstrated in Slovenia in other areas with similar climatic regimes.
Success factor(s)
Success factor type Success factor role Comments
Existing staff and consultant knowledge
main factor
Financing type Comments
EU-funds: LIFE+
Barrier type Barrier role Comments
Driver type Driver role Comments
Legal obligations
main driver
Financing share
Financing share type Share Comments
European funds
National funds
Policy description
Land-filling is still the most common form of final waste disposal. The permanent control of emission of leachate and biogas presents a major environmental problem of the landfills. The common approach toward elimination of the negative emissions from landfills on the environment is the use of physical barriers (mineral, synthetic liners), which prevents the formation of landfill leachate and gasses. Surface isolation of the deposited wastes at the same time prevents their further degradation and disables their final stabilization. As the duration of the isolation materials is limited, in spite of their high quality, the long-term solution of these existing techniques is environmentally questionable.
Quantified objectives
The demonstrated approach allows a landfill site to become a bioreactor by permitting controlled infiltration and consequently further decomposition of the degradable part of the waste. This results in a quicker stabilization of a landfill site as the water in the bioreactor stimulates anaerobic microbes to mineralise organic waste. Fast growing trees with high evapotranspiration are used, which additionally contributes to leachate treatment and evapotranspiration of excess water to the atmosphere. Due to the closed hydrological and pollution cycle, the negative impact on the environment is reduced and the landfill site is lastingly rehabilitated.
Part of wider plan
Policy target
Target purpose
Pollutants Removal
Oher Societal Benefits
Policy pressure
Pressure directive Relevant pressure
Policy area
Policy area type Policy area focus Name Comments
Policy impact
Impact directive Relevant impact
Policy wider plan
Wider plan type Wider plan focus Name Comments
The need for the reclamation of landfill sites to avoid long-term contamination is widely recognized in the EU countries. According to Slovene and EU Directives, old landfill sites have to be rehabilitated and there is a strong need for the protection of drinking water sources near landfill sites.
Policy requirement directive
Requirement directive Specification
Direct benefits information
The project results suggest savings are as high as 51% compared to leachate treatment systems and 31% for the final cover of landfill sites with synthetic layers.
Costs total
Costs total information
Total budget for the project.
Information on Ecosystem improved biodiversity
This new method of landfill management enables the secondary use of revitalized landfill sites improving biodiversity and increasing their public acceptance.
Information on Ecosystem provisioning services
N/A info
Ecosystem impact climate regulation
Not relevant for the specific application
Information on Ecosystem impact GHG soil carbon
Offensive odors are eliminated and the emission of greenhouse gases reduced through a gas drainage system and the increased assimilation of CO2 and the oxidation of methane by the vegetative growth.
Information on retained water
not relevant for this application
Information on increased water storage
not relevant for this application
Information on runoff reduction
not relevant for this application
Water quality overall improvements
Positive impact-WQ improvement
Information on Water quality overall improvements
Reduction of the contamination of surrounding waters with nutrients and toxic compounds, elimination of offensive odors, reduction of uncontrolled emission of gasses, final degradation of wastes with controlled infiltration of water into the landfill body.
Water quality Improvements Phosphorus (P)
Water quality Improvements (P) unit
% reduction pf pollutant
Water quality Improvements Nitrogen (N)
Wq Improvements n unit
% reduction pf pollutant
Soil quality overall soil improvements
N/A info


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