Oroklini wetland restoration in Cyprus

National Id
Site name
Oroklini lake, Larnaca
Oroklini lake is a waterbody located close to the south coast of Cyprus next to the city of Larnaca and within the boundaries of Oroklini village. The waterbody has been subject to modifications and degradation by implementing hydraulic measures in the mid 40’s, in order to desiccate the lake, due to health concerns. The purpose of NWRM implementation was to increase water retention and restore the wetland habitats in order to meet the needs of two important bird species, but also to increase biodiversity. The measures included among others, retention measures aiming at securing water availability in the upper basin of the lake and measures aiming at increasing the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
The in-depth description of the case study
Κύπρος (Kýpros)
RBD code
Data provider
Ayis Iacovides, I.A.CO
NWRM(s) implemented in the case study
Climate zone
warm temperate dry
Soil type
Mean rainfall
Mean rainfall unit
Average temperature
Mean evaportranspiration
Mean evaportranspiration unit
Mean runoff
Mean runoff unit
600 - 750 mm
Average runoff coefficient
Average imperviousness
Case Study Info
Light or indepth?
Average slope range
Vegetation class
Reedbeds and halophytes
Monitoring impacts effects
Administrative annual cost information
The measure involved studies on the Management Plan of the Natura site, a Life Project for the full evaluation of the wetland and its sustenance, a Hydrologic study for operation of the lake and the wetland etc. Expenses will be determined later.
Performance impact estimation method
Catchment outlet
Performance impact estimation information
A monthly water operation study of the Oroklini Lake, under scenarios of drought, average and wet conditions was carried out on the basis of the hydro-climatological conditions of the years 1968 to 2011. This was used to evaluate impact on fauna.
Application scale
Field Scale
Installation date
Performance timescale
1 - 4 years
Area (ha)
Area subject to Land use change or Management/Practice change (ha)
Size unit
Max water retention capacity
Max water retention capacity unit
Runoff treatment capacity
Runoff treatment capacity unit
Basis of design
100-year storm
Constraints are: urbanization of the area surrounding the lake and demand for new road crossings. Similarly, the urbanization and lack of sewage network causes deterioration of quality of surface water, and future changes of its quantity.
Favourable preconditions
The lowland features of the area and its location favorable to certain bird species and the presence of surface runoff as well as the state ownership of the area are excellent preconditions.
Inflow volume
Inflow volume unit
mio m3/day
Outflow volume
Outflow volume unit
mio m3/month
Public consultation
Contractural arrangements
Design contractual arrangement
Arrangement type Responsibility Role Comments Name
project LIFE10 NAT/CY/716
Design consultation activity
Activity stage Key issues Name Comments
Design land use change
Land use change type
Inland marshes
Design authority
Authority type Role Responsibility Name Comments
Determination of design details of the measure
BirdLife Cyprus
Game Fund Department
Dept of Ministry of Interior
Oroklini Community Board
Local Authority
Department of Environment
Dept of Ministry of Agriculture, Natural resources and Environment
Key lessons
Proper water management with small scale measures can restore wetlands within urban areas for furthering nature conservation objectives such as wet grassland conditions for breeding rare birds. This at the same time may offer minor flood protection.
Financing mechanism
Financing difficulties
Success factor(s)
Success factor type Success factor role Comments
Attitude of decision makers
main factor

Insistence and pressure by Department of Environment , BirdLife Cyprus and Game Fund

Financing possibilities
main factor

Financial support by LIFE under the project LIFE10 NAT/CY/716

Financing type Comments
EU-funds: LIFE+
Barrier type Barrier role Comments
Attitude of relevant stakeholders
main barrier
Land owners within and peripheral areas
Driver type Driver role Comments
Organisation committed to it
main driver
Dept. of Environment, BirdLife Cyprus, Game Fund, Local Village Council
Financing share
Financing share type Share Comments
European funds
National funds
Policy description
The NWRM, a water retaining structure with sluice and other water management works, channels for ideal nesting habitat, new low bunds with overflow etc., all tending to prevent the drying out of the lake and fit the needs of the target species.
Part of wider plan
Policy target
Target purpose
Improved Biodiversity
Oher Societal Benefits
Peak-flow reduction
Oher Societal Benefits
Policy pressure
Pressure directive Relevant pressure
Policy area
Policy area type Policy area focus Name Comments
Policy impact
Impact directive Relevant impact
Policy wider plan
Wider plan type Wider plan focus Name Comments
Policy requirement directive
Requirement directive Specification
Direct benefits information
Continuation of the wetland effectiveness within the encroaching urban development. Existence of wetland and nesting ground of two species of birds listed in Annex I of EU Directive. Availability of wet conditions for the period required
Ancillary benefits information
Leisure area within an urban environment. Tourist attraction. Educational area for young people.
Costs investment information
The measure exists only partly. On going studies aim to design in full the NWRM and management of the wetland. Full capital cost is still not known
Costs operational information
The costs will be known once the full management plan including necessary monitoring is established. These might involve analyses of water, fauna observations, assistant†™s visit to check water level recorder and other installations.
Costs maintenance information
Expenses will be identified after completion of NWRM design. Additional costs will involve protection of quality of water flowing to the wetland due to urbanization and encroachment of urban development.
Costs total information
The measure is under study. The full investment will be evaluated after the completion of all relevant studies
Economic costs additional
Information on Economic costs additional
The measure exists only partly. On going studies aim to design in full the NWRM and management of the wetland. Full capital cost is still not known
Ecosystem improved biodiversity
Information on Ecosystem improved biodiversity
The conditions in the area where two very important birds included in Annex I of EU Directive on Birds (Vanellus spinosus and Himantopus himantopus) nest, are greatly improved. The lake hosts some 186 kinds of which 69 are included in the Directive.
Ecosystem provisioning services
Information on Ecosystem provisioning services
The NWRM helps the development of mild tourism activity and leisure activities in agreement with the maintenance of the environmental values of the wetland and the protection of the bird species using it.
Ecosystem impact climate regulation
No specific impact
Information on Ecosystem impact climate regulation
Very minor impact might be expected on climate regulation.
Retained water
Retained water unit
mio m3/month
Information on retained water
In an average year the lake created by the dam is dry in June, July, August and September. The lake is full for the rest of the months except of May (nearly half full) and October (nearly full). Spills maintain wetlands downstream the dam
Increased water storage
Runoff reduction
Increased water storage unit
mio m3/month
Information on increased water storage
The water stored in the lake created by the retention dam in an average year is 0,017 million m3 per month. The wetland collected certain, reduced, quantities of water for some periods of the year which soon evaporated
Runoff reduction unit
Information on runoff reduction
The average monthly water reduction by the NWRM is estimated to be of the order of 6600 m3. The control could be higher if the controlled releases to the downstream wetlands are considered.
Ecosystem erosion control
Information on Ecosystem erosion control
Although of minor impact. Sediments are deposited upstream the dam.
Water quality overall improvements
Positive impact-WQ improvement
Information on Water quality overall improvements
The presence of stored water reduces the salinity of the water
Soil quality overall soil improvements
Neutral impact-no change in SQ status
Information on Soil quality overall soil improvements
No impact on soil quality is observed or expected.


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