The channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river. (Source: BJGEO)
"Supplementary" measures are those measures designed and implemented in addition to the basic measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives established pursuant to Article 4 of the WFD. Part B of Annex VI contains a non-exclusive list of such measures. Member States may also adopt further supplementary measures in order to provide for additional protection or improvement of the waters covered by this Directive, including in implementation of the relevant international agreements referred to in Article 1.
The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river. (Source: CED)
An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded. (Source: WHIT)
A biophysical parameter is a measurable characteristic that can help in defining a particular system. It can cover individual substances, groups of substances or be defined by its measurement method like turbidity or the mesurement of oxygen consumption like BOD5 or COD. It is generally expressed by a value and its unit.
Forest harvesting can cause severe disruptions to the hydrologic cycle. Clearcut areas are often subject to localized flooding due to reductions in evapotranspiration caused by removal of trees. Roads and other infrastructure needed to support forest harvesting can also be significant sources of sediment to surface waters. However, negative effects can be minimized when forest harvesting is performed in a water-sensitive manner and measures are taken to maintain the natural hydrological functioning of the landscape.
Green Infrastructure is addressing the spatial structure of natural and semi-natural areas but also other environmental features which enable citizens to benefit from its multiple services. The underlying principle of Green Infrastructure is that the same area of land can frequently offer multiple benefits if its ecosystems are in a healthy state. Green Infrastructure investments are generally characterized by a high level of return over time, provide job opportunities, and can be a cost-effective alternative or be complementary to 'grey' infrastructure and intensive land use change. It serves the interests of both people and nature.
From the perspective of Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM), green infrastructure refers to new methods of managing water, favouring as much as possible the restoration of natural ecosystems or at least of their key functionalities in terms of water management. It consists of land management or engineering measures which use vegetation, soils, and other natural materials to restore the natural water retention capacity of the landscape. Green infrastructure measures use natural and man-made materials to enhance or improve longitudinal and lateral hydrological connectivity and natural hydrologic processes, including infiltration and runoff control but also purification processes. Green infrastructure can exist at a range of spatial scales, ranging from the very local, to the scale of a neighbourhood, a city or a whole region.
Local scale green infrastructure includes green roofs, permeable pavements and downspout disconnections, all of which can contribute to greater natural infiltration, reduced load on wastewater management systems, and limitations of peak runoff.
At the scale of a city or neighbourhood, green infrastructure can support sustainable urban drainage systems that mimic nature by soaking up and storing water or biodiversity promotion with fish ladders.
At a regional scale, green infrastructure can include the mosaic of managed semi-natural and natural areas that provides habitat, flood protection, cleaner air, and cleaner water. Thus land management strategies such as afforestation and retention of natural water retaining features in agricultural areas such as riparian buffers, ponds and wetlands can be considered as Green infrastructures designed to manage flood risks in downstream urban areas.
One key feature of Green infrastructure is its multi-functionality. The underlying principle of green infrastructure is that the same area of land can offer multiple benefits if the natural or man-made ecosystem is in a socio-ecologically sustainable state. Benefits of green infrastructure include a more natural hydrological cycle and ecosystem services related to biodiversity and human amenity. Green Infrastructure investments are generally characterized by a high level of return over time, provide job opportunities, and can be a cost-effective alternative or be complementary to 'grey' infrastructure and intensive land use change. Green infrastructure serves the interests of both people and nature.
Considering that the mountain ranges are the water towers of our planet, the mountaineers, in cooperation with the large population centers of Piedmont, are rallying together to adopt adaptation strategies in response to global change that is taking place, and to prevent the risks of droughts and floods. Elected officials, water managers and scientists are invited to meet together to share ideas, debate and promote joint management of the water, at the lever of upper basins.
On p4 "Moving from grey to green infrastructure": this interesting article summarises some key aspects of the new approach of the EC towards Green infrastructures.You will find some further references to more detailed documents in this news article hereunder.