# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Working on NWRM requires understanding of a broad range of key concepts. This page gathers definitions for a set of key concepts used when addressing NWRM. It sets a shared ontology, with interlinkages between concepts. Semantic annotations have been developed and the associated ontology represented thanks to a relation graph.

Semantic Annotation helps to bridge the ambiguity of the natural language when expressing notions and their computational representation in a formal language. By telling a computer how data items are related and how these relations can be evaluated automatically, it becomes possible to process complex filter and search operations. (source:

The cost per year of implementing a NWRM over its entire lifespan. EAC is used when comparing NWRMs of unequal lifespans. It is estimated through listing all capital expenditures and when they are incurred; calculating the net present value of... more
The general process or the group of processes whereby the materials of Earth's crust are loosened , dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another, by natural processes, which include weathering, solution, corrosion, and... more
(either positive or negative). Third-party effect or welfare impact, which is both unilateral (i.e. one cannot decide neither whether to suffer it or not nor how much impact to bear), and non-compensated. In other words, an externality stemming from... more
Gently sloping vegetated strips of land that provide opportunities for slow conveyance and infiltration. Designed to accept runoff as overland flow from upstream and to slow the progress of this runoff. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by... more
The (monetary) value of resources deployed for the implementation of any NWRM, which includes upfront capital expenditures, either from new investments or the replacement of assets in past investments; depreciation allowances (annualised cost or... more
A floodplain isᅠan area of land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls which provides space for the retention of flood and rainwater.ᅠ It experiences flooding during... more
Forest harvesting can cause severe disruptions to the hydrologic cycle. Clearcut areas are often subject to localized flooding due to reductions in evapotranspiration caused by removal of trees. Roads and other infrastructure needed to support... more
Much of the evapotranspiration from forests falls elsewhere as rain, Ellison et al. (2012), amongst others, have shown that this large scale water pump can be a significant component of the annual precipitation in many continental areas. That is to... more
A gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, and military... more
Green cover (including cover crops or catch crops) refers to crops planted in late summer or autumn, usually on arable land, to protect the soil, which would otherwise lie bare during the winter, against wind and water erosion.ᅠ Green cover crops... more
EU definition: Green Infrastructure is addressing the spatial structure of natural and semi-natural areas but also other environmental features which enable citizens to benefit from its multiple services. The underlying principle of Green... more
Systems to cover the roof of a building or structure with vegetation cover and/or landscaping.ᅠ Green roofs are designed to intercept and retain precipitation, reducing the volume of runoff and attenuating peak flows.
From the perspective of Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM), grey infrastructure usually refers to the traditional methods of managing water, using man-made, constructed assets, most often water tight and designed to avoid any type of ecosystem... more
Targeted planting of forests in headwater areas (e.g. with a slope) can help to stabilize hillslopes, thereby reducing erosion and potentially leading to greater water retention in montane areas. Afforestation may have beneficial effects on the... more
To ease the overall functioning of the river, some hydrographical network elements could be reconnected, including the so-called hydraulic annexes. This will allow for improvement of lateral connectivity, diversifying flows and habitats, but also... more
The penetration of water into the soil from the surface.
The maximum rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil from the surface.
Shallow excavations filled with gravel or other material to create temporary storage and to enhance the natural capacity of the ground to infiltrate. Infiltration trenches would typically be used to intercept surface runoff drainage (e.g. drainage... more
Rainfall that is stored on a vegetation canopy and later evaporated back to the atmosphere.
Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in proximity. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop.... more
An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded. (Source: WHIT)
Lakes are by definition water retention facilities; they store water (for flood control) and provide water for many purposes such as water supply, irrigation, fisheries, tourism, etc.ᅠ In addition, they serve as sinks for carbon storage and provide... more
It is widely believed that forest soils can function as pollution filters. Afforestation is practiced in rural areas around many large cities as a means of improving the quality of the drinking water supply aquifer by filtering out pollutants.... more
The process by which nutrients and other chemicals are washed out of the soil by percolating water. Nitrate fertilisers, for example, are washed out of the soil because of their high solubility. They eventually find their way into watercourses or... more
Levelling longitudinal barriers allows re-establishing fluvial dynamics and ecological continuity. The aim is to restore the slope and longitudinal profile of the river, to restore natural water flows, to allow for the solid transport (sediment) to... more


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