# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Working on NWRM requires understanding of a broad range of key concepts. This page gathers definitions for a set of key concepts used when addressing NWRM. It sets a shared ontology, with interlinkages between concepts. Semantic annotations have been developed and the associated ontology represented thanks to a relation graph.

Semantic Annotation helps to bridge the ambiguity of the natural language when expressing notions and their computational representation in a formal language. By telling a computer how data items are related and how these relations can be evaluated automatically, it becomes possible to process complex filter and search operations. (source:

Length of time for which the NWRM may fully operate.
LID is a toolbox of site-scale practices that the site designer and developer can utilize to:manage urban rainfall where it occurs for minimized stormwater concentration and runoffpotentially lower short-term and long-term development costsimprove... more
Large pores in the soil that may form important pathways for infiltration and redistribution of water bypassing the soil matrix as a preferential flow. May result from soil cracking and ped formation, root channels and animal burrows. May be... more
From the perspective of Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM), maintenance is the set of actions or processes that are performed to keep an already existing natural process functioning in the best possible manner. Maintenance can include physical... more
MAR is the purposeful recharge of water to aquifers for subsequent recovery and environmental benefit. Within the context of urban environment, MAR covers the injection and infiltration of captured stormwater ヨ as such, it is linked to SuDS measures... more
Meadows are areas or fields whose main vegetation is grass, or other non-woody plants, used for mowing and haying.ᅠ Pastures are grassed or wooded areas, moorland or heathland, generally used for grazing. Due to their rooted soils and their... more
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of an area of soil. Its purpose is any or all of the following:·       to conserve moisture·       to improve the fertility and health... more
Factor of proportionality that shows how much spending in a NWRM may induce direct or indirect changes in macroeconomic variables, such as income, employment, investment, etc. It is another way of referring to wider economic impacts of NWRM.
In the past, various activities were undertaken to straighten rivers, such as the stabilisation of river banks with concrete or other types of retention walls.ᅠ Such actions limited riversメ natural movements, leading to degradation of the river,... more
Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM) are multi-functional measures that aim to protect and manage water resources and address water-related challenges by restoring or maintaining ecosystems as well as natural features and characteristics of water... more
Nature-based solutions aim to help societies address a variety of environmental, social and economic challenges in sustainable ways. They are actions which are inspired by, supported by or copied from nature. Some involve using and enhancing... more
Nitrate, NO-3, is the main nitrogen containing anion occurring in the soil. It is very soluble and moves freely in water through the soil profile. Nitrate in water is a pollutant above certain concentrations and can be a danger to human health. The... more
The 1980 EC Drinking Water Directive set a maximum of 50 mg/l of nitrate in drinking water (equivalent to 11.3 mg/l nitrate-nitrogen). An increasing number of water sources currently exceed this limit. Agriculture is the main source of nitrate in... more
Tillage is a mechanical modification of the soil.ᅠ Intensive tillage can disturb the soil structure, thus increasing erosion, decreasing water retention capacity, reducing soil organic matter through the compaction and transformation of pores. No-... more
Value of those alternatives foregone when implementing a NWRM.
Ditch blocking in managed peatland forests can be used to slow water and trap sediment after forest harvesting. The ditches can be made of wood logs or gabions, for example. - Elaborated by NWRM project experts and validated by the European... more
Engineered ponds in peatlands that have been ditched to enhance forest production have the potential to retain water in the landscape and trap sediment without adversely affecting tree growth. Such measures have the potential to limit hydrograph... more
Pervious surfaces (either porous or permeable) like permeable paving designed to allow rainwater to infiltrate through the surface and into underlying layers (soils and aquifers), or broader use of permeable areas to promote greater infiltration. -... more
Phosphates from agriculture are an important contributor to phosphorus loading on water bodies. Phosphorus is considered to be a limiting factor in the process of eutrophication that can generally be regarded as the enrichment of surface waters by... more
Local concentrations of flow in the soil that may be due to the effects of macropores, local variations in hydraulic properties or fingering of a wetting front moving into the soil profile. May lead to rapid and deep infiltration of water bypassing... more
Small-scale depressions used for storage and infiltration, typically at a property-level and close to buildings (e.g. to infiltrate roof drainage at a property level). - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by... more
Collecting and storing rainwater for subsequent use ヨ for example, using water butts or larger storage tanks. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
From the perspective of natural water retention measures (NWRM), reconnection is the process of improving hydrological connection in the landscape, both through linking water bodies and through improving the connectivity between rivers and their... more
Conservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,100ᅠkg/ha of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period. This slows water movement, which reduces the amount of soil erosion... more
Reduced stocking density will limit soil compaction, thereby facilitating more rapid infiltration during precipitation events and potentially reducing peak flows and sediment runoff. - Elaborated by NWRM project experts and validated by the... more


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