# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Working on NWRM requires understanding of a broad range of key concepts. This page gathers definitions for a set of key concepts used when addressing NWRM. It sets a shared ontology, with interlinkages between concepts. Semantic annotations have been developed and the associated ontology represented thanks to a relation graph.

Semantic Annotation helps to bridge the ambiguity of the natural language when expressing notions and their computational representation in a formal language. By telling a computer how data items are related and how these relations can be evaluated automatically, it becomes possible to process complex filter and search operations. (source:

In the past, rivers have been straightened by cutting off meanders (historically, many rivers in northern and western Europe have been straightened and channelized to facilitate log floating and/or speed up the drainage of water and control/limit... more
A process of returning natural ecosystems or habitats to their original structure and species composition. Renaturation requires a detailed knowledge of the original species, ecosystem functions and interacting processes involved. (Source: GEMET,... more
Afforestation of reservoir catchments can have multiple benefits. It can reduce sediment inputs from the catchment, lengthening the life of the reservoir, and may also have beneficial effects on water quality in some cases when peatlands are... more
The cost linked the economic or relative scarcity of water once it is used.
Restoration is a management action or set of actions with the aim of restoring natural hydrologic functioning ᅠin the landscape. Restoration of natural functioning can contribute to an environmental balance in water management. NWRM implementation... more
Ponds or pools with additional storage capacity to attenuate surface runoff during rainfall events.ᅠ Retention time of runoff can provide the capacity to remove pollutants through sedimentation and opportunity for biological uptake of nutrients... more
In the past, rivers flows have been modified through channelisation, embankments or modification of river beds. Those modifications were aiming at flood prevention or supporting changes of agricultural practices for example. This has led to... more
Planting and maintaining tree cover in near-stream areas can have multiple benefits including erosion and nutrient leaching control. They will also slow the stream velocity during high flow flood events and may have beneficial effects on stream... more
1) Terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate are products of the combined pressure and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water... and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics. 2) Zone situated on the bank of a... more
The channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river. (Source: BJGEO)
The reconstitution of the alluvial mattress consists in leveling-up the river bed and/or reactivating the bank erosion in order to stop the incision of the river bed. It can allow better connection with side arms, level-up the water level at low... more
Sediment capture ponds are widely used to "slow down" water being drained from boreal forests. The main function of the sediment capture ponds is to remove prevent pollution of receiving waters downstream of a forest by removing suspended sediment... more
Excavations, typically filled with gravel, designed to store water and allow it to infiltrate into underlying soils or aquifers.ᅠ Soakaways would typically receive point-source inflow (e.g. from roof drainage).ᅠᅠ - Based on Stella definitions,... more
The management of land to minimise soil erosion to maintain soil and water resources, and provide sustainable benefits in the long term.
Strip cropping is a method of farming used when a slope is too steep or too long, or otherwise, when one does not have an alternative method of preventing soil erosion. It alternates strips of closely sown crops such as hay, wheat, or other small... more
On heavy or poorly structured soils it is occasionally necessary to loosen the soil to a greater depth than that reached by normal cultivations, in order to improve drainage and root penetration. Subsoiling machines (subsoilers) for this purpose can... more
Those expenditures that, once committed, cannot be (easily) recovered. These costs arise because some activities require specialized assets that cannot be readily diverted to other uses.
"Supplementary" measures are those measures designed and implemented in addition to the basic measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives established pursuant to Article 4 of the WFD. Part B of Annex VI contains a non-exclusive list of such... more
Surface runoff can be described as water flowing over soil, vegetation or other ground cover instead of infiltrating to the underlying soil. Surface runoff may be caused by imperviousness of the underlying material, or because the underlying... more
The solid particles, suspended within the water column, which the water is carrying. Includes soil particles and organic material derived from living thing. Can be measured by filtering the water and accurately weighing the dried residue to give a... more
"Approaches to manage surface water that take account of water quantity (flooding), water quality (pollution)ᅠand amenity issues are collectively referred to as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS). SuDS mimic nature and typically manage rainfall... more
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (or SUDS) are a sequence of water management practices, green infrastructures and measures designed to drain surface water in a manner that mimics the natural hydrologic cycle and will provide a more sustainable... more
Shallow, broad and vegetated channels designed to store and/or convey runoff. - Based on Stella definitions, adapted by NWRM project experts and validated by the European Commission
There is some evidence that planting trees on some Mediterranean hillslopes can assist in cloud formation and precipitation. The forests assist in "trapping" rising air and condensing atmospheric water vapour. This work has been pursued by Milan... more
Temporary streams are of particular importance when it comes to water storage and time retention especially in flash flood prone areas. Some measures can be directly implemented in order to ensure their proper functioning. - Based on Stella... more


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